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By F. Ckrnegy, Officiating Commissioner and Settlement Officer, | 


By J, Woodburn, Officiating Settlement Officer, 



By 0. S. Noble, Assistant Settlement Officer. 



A Historical Sketch of Fyiabad Tehail, including the fomer 


Capitals, A(jridhi& and Pyzabftds 

Section I.— Introdcotoby remarks. 

hitroductory. — He who essays to write the History of Ajudhid, in detail, must 
first of all master all that has been written of three distinct ages, and that is not 


First, there is the mythic period of Rdma and Vikramddittd, and bearing upon 
this, we have (1). The lUmdyan of Vdlmiki, modernized by Tdlshi Dds in the 
days of Shahjchdn, and treated in our own days historically by Wheeler, geographi- 
cally by Gust, and poetically by Monier Williams and Griffiths. (2). The Raghuvansa 
of Kalidasa, an ornament of the Court of Vikramadittd, to the glory of whose line 
the work was composed nearly 2,000 years ago, and of which I am not aware that 
there is any complete English edition ; and (3) the Ajudhid Mahdtam (for an epitome 
see Appendix B) a far less known and more recent work, compiled beyond 
doubt by Pandits subsequent to the restoration of Brdliminism, the scope of which 
is to dilate on the- special virtues of the different shrines in and around Ajiidhid. 

Second, the historic age, an acquaintance with which would necessitate the 
study of the writings of, (1) the Chinese travellers of the fourth and sixth centuries, 
with the liglit thrown upon them in these days by Elphinstone, Cowell and Cun- 
ningham ; and (2) the Mahornedan geographers and historians, to the study of whose 
works Sir H. Elliot devoted a life. 

Third, the modern ago, or Oudh under its Nawflbs and Kings, which would entail . 
familiarity with a host of recent writers from Maqaulay downwards. 

It may be supposed that a course of study such as has just been sketched is beyond 
the leisure of a public officer harassed with many official cares ; and it follows that 
so far as the writer is concerned the public must wait longer for the complete history 
of “ Ajudhid the blessed as however his duties and tastes have placed a considerable 
amount of information at his disposal, he has gladly placed his notes such as they are 
on record, as his contribution towards a more ambitious history, which some of his 
competent official successors may, perhaps, have the leisure and ability to undertake. 

Section IL— Pargana Haveli-Oudh. 

Pargana IlavelUOuulh, — Pargana Haveli-Oudh takes its name from Oudh, 
the capital, and Haveli the name generally used to indicate the principal station of 
the chief* revenue authorities of the Moghals. The pargana is bounded on the’ 
north and east by the River Gogra, on the south by the River Marh& and Parganas 
Pachharardth and Amsin, and on the west by Pargana Mangalsi. » • 

In former days the revenue collections of the pargana, used to be made at the 
“ Keld Mdbdrak” or blessed fort, which was situated at Lachhmanghdt where now 
stands the recently built temple of Jugla Saran. In the days of Mansur Ali Khdn, 
(A. D, 1739-54), they used to be made at “ RAth Haveli,” and in the time of the 
Balm Begum, at or near the Dilkdshd, both of which latter places are in tlie city of 

The pargana differs from all others in the district^ inasmuch as there never 
were any of the usual TappS sub-divisiorfs. It contained in the King’s time 329 
townships. These were reduced under Summary Settlement to 242 in number ; and 
they have now been further cut down to 181 demarcated villages, under the redistri- 
butions of the revised settlement. 

< S ) 

In addition to the Rivers OogrS and MarhS, already mentioned, a petty rivulet, 
the Telai or Tilang which is of some traditional importance, has its rise in Pargana 
Mangalsi, runs through this pargana, and falls into the Qogrd at Ajfidhil Opposite 
Fyzabad, the Qogri is five miles broad from bank to b&nk in the rains, and its bed at 
this point is subject to continual change, so that it can never be said till the waters 
subside, whether the ferry will be over one or two or three streams. It is beyond 
question that the bridge of boats ought to be at Lachhmanghit, where there is but 
one stream between high banks, and where it would with little alteration of roads, 
carry the traffic of Busti and Goruckpdr, as well as Gondah. The Marh^, which has 
its rise in Mouza Bisddhi is subject to sudden rises in the rains, is not navigable in 
this part of the district, but is much used for irrigation purposes. 

Tradition here as elsewhere in this district attributes all rights in the soil to the 
Bhars, who were suppressed after the Mahomedan supremacy, and of whom traces 
are still pointed out in numerous villages. In more modern times, (1) Vasisht 
Brahmins, (2) the Surdjbans, (3) Garagbans, and (4) Bais Chhatris, (5) the tJpadhid 
Brahmins, (6) the Bhadars^ Syads, and (7) Maujadbanspdr Kfirmis were the chief 
landed proprietors. Of these several families, I now proceed to give some brief 

1.— The Vasisht Brahmins. 

The Vasisht Brahmins . — The members of this family assert descent from Va- 
sisht Muni, the spiritual adviser of the immortal Rto Chandar, from whom that 
portion of the town which is still known as Vasisht Told, takes its name, and whose 
sacred memory is still kept fresh by the annual visits of his votaries to the Vasisht 
Ktind or reservoir, in the same quarter. 

After the vicissitudes of the Budhist and Atheist periods when the Valic faith 
was for the time, it is believed, locally suppressed, Ajudhia was again traditionally 
restored and brahminically re-peopled, through the exertions of Vikrarndjit of Ujain ; 
and Kashirdm and other members of the present Vasisht tribe, who now inhabit the 
ancient haunts of the family, aver that their ancestors were then re-called by the 
sovereign in question, from Kdshmere, and received from him large assignments of 
revenue-free land. It is the further averment of these persons that they retained 
their possessions during the supremacy of the non-Brdhminic Bhars, but it is almost 
needless to say that no proofs are extant cither of their advent from Kdshmere, or 
their stedfastness of faith under the Bliars. In the Ain-i-akbari, the oldest reliable 
historical record, Vasisht Brahmins are stated to be the prevailing caste of zammd^rs 
in this pargand. 

The proprietary status of this family waned before the modern Surajbans clan 
the annals of which will follow, and its members are now reduced to the possession 
of exproprietary petty holdings (Sir) and duos (Saycr), in the Rilntip.41i Anjn^ 
, Narainpfir and Luchhmidaspdr estates, which comprise 32 villages in all,Mn which 
also they chiefly reside. 

. • IL — The Si^rajbans Chhatris. 

The Surajbans Chhatris . — It is the assertion of the present local members of this 
tribe that 350 years ago their common ancestor L^l Jai Sing came from Kallu 
Kamayan (Kamaon) and settled in the suburb of Fyzabad, whicli is now known as 
Sultanpur, in rear of the Giildb-bari. He and his throe sons are said subsequently 
to have joined the service of Dandds Sao, a dealer of Puramarnd, now more generally 
known as Jalal-ud-din Nagdr. This man had excavated a large tank in the neigh- 
bourhood of that place, to which ho had given his own name. There dwelt hard by 
in the village of Belehri, Shdh Bhikd a hermit of great repute. On one occasion the 
dealer found this hermit washing his teeth at the edge of his tank, and admonished 
him for so doing. This so enraged the hermit that he gave vent to his feelings and 
vowed that in future, donkeys even should not drijok at the tank, and in consequence 

( 8 ) 

water is but rarely to be found in it The curse of the hermit seems to have ex- 
tended to the dealer also, for adversity soon overtook him and he died childless, his 
landed property falling into the hands of Lai Jai Sing, the Sdrajbans servant, of 
whom we have already heard. This man improved his opportunities to such good 
effect that at his death he was the proprietor of 97 villages. The present members of 
tfie family are in the twelfth generation from the common ancestor Ldl Jai Sing. 
They still possess rights in olf villages. In 21 of these they are independent proprietors ; 
in 28 they are in subordination to the Tdlfikddr of Maujadbanspdr, and in the re- 
maining 5 to Mahd Raja Sir Man Sing. 

The Ex-Rdjas of Amorhd and Maholi in the Bust! District, the Rdja of 
Mohason in that District, and the Raja of Hardhd in Daridbdd were all chiefs of 
colonies that broke oflf at different times from the original Purd stem. 

III.— The Garagbans Chhatris of KtisMAHA. 

The Oaragham Chhatris. — The traditions of this clan allege a descent from 
Garag Muni or Rdj, or Rikh, a devotee of old, who according to some, was summoned 
by Rdja Dasrath the father of Rdma from Kahouj to aid him in performing the 
sacrifice of the horse, and by others, by Raja Vikramddittd, from Kykydes, on his res- 
toration of Ajfidhid. The proprietary possessions of the clan began in this pargana, 
where at a very early period they are said to have acquired the 
estates marginally named, consisting of K) townships. But 
largo estates were also acquired by them elsewhere, and the 
history of the clan will bo given in greater detail under 
Pargana Sultanpur — Barosa, in which its chief members, the 
successors of the gallant brothers Sheoumber, and Harpal and 
Hubdir, still bold the Khaprddih and Sihipdr Talukda. 










This branch of the family held proprietary possession of the above four estates 
until A. D. 1816, after which their lands were absorbed into the Mahdona Tdlukd, 
and now the old proprietors are reduced to the possession of Sir and Sdyer in their 
old villages. 

IV.— The Bais Chhatris. 

The Bais Chhatris — There is a colony of this clan in the pargana the members 
of whicli aver that their ancestors Kanak Rdi and Tir Sing came from Baiswari 
500 years ago, and displaced the Bhars in the possession of 37 villages. But their 
lights in these have long been over-ridden by others, 11 villages having passed into 
Taldkd MahdonC, 16 into Tdldkd MaujSdbanspdr, while others are in the hands 
of Mdfiddia and other independent proprietors. The Bais are still however the 
recorded proprietors of Mouza Ashrafpur, and they hold minor subordinate rights in 
others of their old villages. 

I have no faith whatever in the alleged advent from BaiswSrii. The Bais were 
few even there 500 years ago, and they do not readily own such offshoots as this. 
I have no doubt whatever that this colony was of local origin. 

V,— The tJpADHiA Brahmins. 

The U^padhid Brahmins. — One Parsr^m tlpadhifi is said by bis descendants to have 
come from over the Gogr& 300 years ago, and to have married into the local Vasisht 
family. He acquired a proprietary title in 8 villages in this pargana as his wife’s 
inamage portion, and to these ho afterwards added four others. These villages all 
passed into the Mahdonfi T^ldkfi about 40 years ago, but B4bu Rdm and Jagmohan 
are still recorded subproprietors of the tlsru Mahil, which consists of two mouzas, 
and the family also hold petty tenures in some of their other villages as well. 

( 4 ) 

VI.— The Svads of BhadarsX. 

7%e Syada of BhaAMrad . — Three hundred years are said to have elapsed since 
Qne Syad Zain-ul-^bdin aiias Mird-zend, the ancestor of the present Bbadars^ Syad 
family^ of which Hosain Bukhsh and Mahamad J4fir are the heads, came from Naishi- 
pdr in the retinue of one of the Oudh Sdbdd^ and settled in Deh Kataw&Q neir 
Bhadars^ where as usual, ho is said to have displaced the Bliars in the possession 
of 19 villages^ These 19 villages which were formerly on the Government Revenue 
lists, were owing to the exercise of holy functions by the Syads, made revenue-free 
in 1736, A. D., by Nawdb S^at Khdn, and the assignment has been continued in 
perpetuity by the British Government. 

The shrine of the sainted Mira-zen^ at Bhadarai, is still visited by considerable 
crowds on the 2Gth and 27th of Rabi-ul-awal, v ho make offerings of sweetmeats. 
Thieves it is said are detected by sending suspected persons to bring away flowers 
from within the tomb. On their exit they are asked how many graves, or recesses 
they saw within, and the guilty invariably answer wrong. 

VII.— The KtjRMis of Maujai>banspi5r. 

Tke Kdrmia of Maujadbansiiur . — Some seventy years ago, one Oharib IXts, 
Ktirmi is said to have started from his home in Padampur, Pargana Birh^r of this 
district, for Lucknow, accompanied by his youthful son Darshan Kurml Tradition 
further aflSnna that for a time after their arrival the father and son obtained their 
livelihood by working as day-labourers on certain fortifications, then being constructed. 
The boy was of comely countenance, and on this account is believed to have attracted 
the attention of the ruler of the day, Nawab S^idat All Klifin, by whoso order he was 
soon after enrolled in a Regiment of youths kept up by that Naw^b, under the de- 
signation of the “ Shaitin ki Paltan,” which may fairly be rendered “ the devifs own.’* 

The boy Darshan in time rose to bo a jemdd/lr, and at a later period, when he 
had arrived at man’s estate, ho was selected by the same authority as one of the per- 
sonal orderlies, whose chief duty it was to guard his master’s bed. 

By Ghazi-ud-dm Haidar who succeeded Sadat All Khdn, Darshan Singh was 
entrusted with the command of a Regiment, and when tliat ruler was afterwards 
made King by us, one of the first persons whom he in turn ennobled, was the Kfirmi 
Darshan Singh, who was then created a Rdja. In the reign of the next sovereign 
Naslr-ud-din, the importance of- the Rdja waa still further advanced by his being per- 
mitted to sit in the royal presence, with the additional title of Ghdlibjang, (conqueror 
in battle.) , Darshan Singh continued to prosper throughout the reigns of Mahamad 
Xli Shah and Amjad All Shdh, and he died in 1851, while the last king of Oudh 
still sat on his throne, at the great age of eighty. 

The career of this adventurer was not however, without many vicissitudes, and 
they are all recorded in Sleeman’s Journal, volume I, pages 154i to 162. ^One day a 
royal favourite with boundless influence, another the occupant of a cage with snakes 
and scorpions for his companions. In the year 1835 A. D., and again in 1843 A. D. 
w*e find that he incurred the royal displeasure, in consequence of which the fine estate 
that he had previously created was broken up, and its component villages were re- 
stored to the former proprietors. 

The displeasure was however, only of temporary duration, for at the annexation 
we found the son of Darshan Singh, R4ja Jailil Singh, in possession of the Maujad- 
banspur tfildkii, the only tildki that had its head quarters in this pargana, and which 
on the death of his lather, he duly inherited. The tilfiki was made up of the estates 

marginally given, where also, the year of incor- 

MMitadbsittpur, 8 m 12W { poration 18 montioned. 

R2il81»h.B»dt, 8 i, .. . 

Jsi»turi>&e. 411 ” lUyaJaM who played an important part against 

66 f us in the mutiny, was ootnHiitted by roe fcr trial, and 

f hutged at Lucknow, in September 1859, on proof of 

the following cb«rgl|8 : "(I) bning « leader in lebeUion, 


( 8 ) 

in organizing a rebel government, in having placed hlmselF at the head of rebel sepoys 
and murderers, in becoming the spokesman of the rebel officers to the Begara, and 
medium of communication between the rebel army and Brijis Kadr ; in holding high 
office ; in having a jail for the confinement of Christians ; and in encouraging the ar- 
rest and extermination of Christians generally, and their followers. (2) Aiding and 
abetting in the murder of Mrs. Green, Miss Jackson, Mrs. Rodgers, Mr. Baptist Jones, 
Mr. Carew, Mr. J. Sulivan, Mrs. Feelow, (insane) and other Christians, and Mahomed 
• Khfin, Kotwdl, in all 22 or 23 persons on the 24th September 1857.'* 

His property, including Government paper, was confiscated, and his estate was 
conferred on Rdja Rustam Shdh for conspicuous loyalty. J ailal’s son Thdkur Parshdd, 
is at present a student in the Canning College. The younger brothers of Jaildl Singh, 
Rugbardidl and Beni Mddho who were also rebel leaders, are residents of the Azim- 
garh District, and are still in possession of Government paper to the extent of 
Rs. 2,18,000 and Rs. 56,000, from which they have an annual income respectively, of 
Rs. 9,000 and Rs. 2,200. 

The former of these was sent to bring the Ndnd in State to Lucknow, on his 
being driven over the Ganges by our troops in 1867. 

Section IIL— The ancient Capitals AjiJdhiX and Fyzabad. 

The Capitals . — Pargana Havcli Oudh contains the ancient and modem capitals 
of the district, Ajudhid and Fyzabad, and its history would be incomplete without 
some account of those places also. 


A^judhid. — Ajtidhid, which is to the Hindd what Macca is to the Mahomedan, 
Jerusalem to the Jews, has in the traditions of the orthodox, a highly mythical 
origin, being founded for additional security not on the earth for that is transitory, 
but on the chariot wheel of the Great Cz’eator himself which will endure for ever. 

In appearance Ajddhia ha.s been fancifully likened to a fish, having Gfiptar as 
its head, the old town for its body, and the eastern parganas for its tail. 

Derivation . — The name Ajudhid is explained by well-known local Pandits to be 
derived from the Sanskrit words, Ajud, unvanquished^ also Ay, a name of Barmhd, 
the unconquerable city of the Creator. But Ajudhid is also called Oudli, which in 
Sanskrit means a promise, in allusion it is .said, to the promise made by Rdm Chandr 
when he went in exile, to return at the end of 14 years. These are the local deriva- 
tions ; I am not prepared to say to wliat extent they may be accepted as correct. 
Doctor Wilson of Bombay thinks the word is taken from yudh to fight, the city of 
the fighting Chhatris, 

Area . — The ancient city of Ajudhid is said to have covered an area of 12 jogan 
or 48 kos, and to have been the capital of Utar-Kausald or Kosald, (the NortherA 
Treasure) the country of the Surajbans race of Kings, of whom Rdm Chundar was 
57th in descent from Raja Manh, and of which lino Rdja Sumintra was the 113th and 
last. They are said to have reigned through the Suth, Tiretd, and Dwdpar Jugs, 
and 2,000 years of the Kul or present Jfig or Era. 

The description of the Ajddhid of Rdmd and the Rdmdyan has been beautifully 
rendered into verse by the distinguished Principal of the Benares College, Mr. 

Her ample streets were nobly planned, 
And streams of water flowed, 

To keep tho fragrant blossoms fresh, 
Tliat strewed her royal road. 

lliero^duiy - 

]ji li&ei Qn level ground, 

Hew> temple, \id triumphel arc, 

And rampart banner crowned. 

There gilded turrets rose on high, 

Abovd the waving green, 

Of mango-groves and blooming trees, 
And dowory knots between. 

On battlement and gilded spire, 

The pennon streamed in state ; 

And warders, with the ready bow. 

Kept watch at every gate. 

She shone a very mine of gems, 

The throne of Fortune's Queen ; 

So raany-hued her gay parterres, 

So bright her fountains sheen. 

Her dames wore peerless for tho Charm, 
Of figure, voice, and face ; 

For lovely modesty and truth. 

And woman’s gentle grace. 

Their husbands, loyal, wise and kind, 
Were heroes in tho field, 

And sternly battling with tho foe. 

Could die, but never yield. 

Each kept his high observances. 

And loved one faithful spouse ; 

And troops of happy children crowned, 
With fruit their holy vows. 

( Scenes from the Biimnyan. )' 

With the fall of the last of Rump’s line, Ajfidhid became a wilderness, and tho 
royal race became dispersed even as the Jews. From different members of this 
dispersed people, tho Rdjas of Jaipdr, Joudlipdr, Udeypfir, Jambti, &c., of modern 
times, on the authority of the “ Tirhut Kuth-hd,'* claim to descend. Even in the 
days of its desertion Ajddhiit is said still to have remained a comparative Paradise, 
for the jungle by which it was over-run, was tho sweet-smelling keordh, a plant which 
to this day flourishes with unusual luxuriance in tho neighborhood, 

. . Bun-Ovdha . — In less ancient times when waste began to yield to cultivation, 
it took tho name of Ban-Oudha or the Jangle of Oudh. With this period the namo 
of Vikramajit is traditionally and intimately associated, when Budhism again began 
to give place to Brdhrainism. 

The restoration by Vikra7ndjit.-^T!o him the restoration of the neglected and 
forcst-concealcd Ajtidhid is universally attributed. His main clue iu tracing the 
ancient city was of course the holy river Sarj<i, and his next was tho shrino still 
known as Nfigeshar-nSth, which is dedicated to Mahideo, and which presumably 
escaped the devastations of the Bfidhiat and Atheist periods. With these dues, and 
aided by descriptions whieh he found recorded in ancient manus<afipts, the different 
^ts?^dered sacred by association with the worldly Sets of the deified were 

idditified, and Vikramiyftis imid to have ihdieW^ the 
pilgrims from afar still in tbouiiiiKii^ 

( i ) 

• 1 






t 1 



tiiO 20 of course tUjUikdt the etrong-hold of 

Hanttm&n GarhL 






Podli liiktr. 

11 KutMwsr, 

12 Labidh Blma* 
18 Mayaxid. 

14 Bakhach. 

16 Sunimbbl 

16 Bibiii khsii* 

17 PincUrV. 

18 Ifit Gajymdr. 

19 Jam want. 

20 , KearC 

Rattan Singasin (the throne room ) 

KosilU Mandr (the palace of KohIU^ Baja Basrath's let wife.) 
Sumiintra Mandr, (ditto, ditto, 2nd wife.) 

Kekai Jihawan, (ditto, « ditto, Srd do. 

Sabhi Mandr, (ihe court house.) 

Janam Asthan, (Rama’s birth place.) 

Nownitaii, (a8<icmbly room of tlie queens.) 

Kunak Bliawun, (the golden palace of Eamchandar.) 

RAmoiiandar. This fort covered 
a large extent of ground' and 
accordingto ancientmanuscripts, 
it was surrounded by 20* bas- 
tions, each of which was com- 
manded by one of Rama’s fa- 
mous generals, after whom they 
took the names by which they 
are* still known. Within the 
fort were eight royal mansionsf 
where dwelt the Patriarch 
Dasrath, his wive.s, and Rama 

his deified son, of whom it has been plaintively sung — 

** Lord of all yirtucs, by no stain defiled, 

The king’s chief glory was his eldest child, 

For ho was gallant, beautiful, and strong, 

Void of all envy, and the thought of wrong. 

With gentle grace to man and child ho spoke, 

Nor could tho churl his harsli reply provoke, 

Ho paid due honor to tho good and sago, 

Renowned for virtue and revered for ago. 

And when at evo his warlike task w'as o'er, 

Ho sat and listened to their peaceful loro, 

Just, pure and prudent, full of tender mth, 

Tho foo of falsehood and tho friend of truth ; 
Rind, slow to anger, prompt at miscrios call, 

He loved tho people, and was loved of all, 

Proud of tho duties of his warrior race, 

His soul was worthy of his princely place. 
Resolved to win, by many a glorious deed, 

Throned with the gods in heaven, a priceless mood 
What though Brihaspati might hardly vie, 

With him in eloquence and quick reply, 

Kono hoard tho music of his sweet lips flow 
In idle w rangling or for empty show. 

Ho shunned no toils that student’s life befit, 

But learned the Vedas and all holy writ ; 

And even eclipsed his father’s archer fame, 

So swnft his arrow and so sure his aim. 

To this praisG for virtue his ancient father apparently had no pretension ; for 

• JVofe.-^The same story and number of wives is also 9>re told that besides the throo 
ascribed to Salivahana and Tilokchand. wives abovo marginally indicated, 

who caused him so much anxiety, there were 3G0 others of whom history says little * . 
A prodigality of connubial liappiness which in modern days found its parallel also in 
Oudh, in tho Kesar Bfigh Harem of Wajid Ali Shah, 

Samundra Pal Dynasty . — According to tradition RajS Yikrfimdditta ruled over 
Ajudhid for 80 years, and at the end of that time he was outwitted by tho Jogi 
Samundra Pdl, who having by magic made away with the spirit of tho Rdja, himself 
entered into tho abandoned body, and he and his dynasty succeeding to tho kingdom 
they ruled over it for 17 generations or 643 years, which gives an unusual number of 
years for each reign. 

Sinhastam Dynasty.— This Dynasty is supposed to have been succeeded by the 

trans-OograSiribastamfamily of whicdi 

■stifled by 
any centu- 
gaidof lilokohand 

lies. Something of {ha saSQO^nd may 
ia tbes 

ia tbes^ fev.thcRais,Baohgeteand8iribastam fluni^ 
haa moit prMinent rulers of that name. 

Tilokchand was a prominent member, 
a family which was of the Bddhi st- Jaub 
persuasion and to which are attributed 
certain old pooWrfc or pk 
to be fdupd m AjddhU^ but which aro rostoi^tioa; 

( 8 ) 

It was probably against the Siribastam dynasty that Syad Salar made his 
ill-starred advance into Oudh when in the earlier Mahomedan invasions, he and his 
army left their bones to bleach in the wilds of Barfiich (see chronicles of Oonao 
page 83-5). 

But the hold of the trans-Gogra rulers of Ajtidhid was soon after this lost, and 
the place passed under the sway of the Rdjas of Kanouj. Their power however, 
according to hazy tradition seems for a time to have been successfully disputed by 
the Magadh dynasty, whoso temporary rule is still acknowledged, (See under the 
account of the Maniparbat page 24). 

The Kanouj dynasty . — Subsequently to this the MaKamedans made another 
partial advance into Hindoston in alliance with Kanouj whoso Raja it again restored 
to sovereignty ; but in these parts this sovereignty was altogether repudiated, and 
minor local rulers sprang up throughout the land, and a period of territorial confusion 
then prevailed which was only finally terminated by the Mahamodan coiKpiest. A 
copper grant of Jai Chand the last of the Kanouj Rahtors, dated 1187, A. D. or 
G years before his death, was found near Fyzabad when Colonel Caulfield was Resident 
of Lucknow. See A. S. Jour. Vol. X. Part I 18G1. 

Sir H. Elliot mentions that on the occasion of Bikramajits visit to Ajudhiii ho 
erected temples at 3G0 places rendered sacred by association with Rfima. Of these 
shrines but 42 are known to the present generation, and as there are but few things that 
are really old to be seen in Ajtidhid, most of these must be of comparatively recent resto- 
ration. A list of these shrines is given as Appendix A as well as of numerous Thakfir- 
dw^ras &c. which have been, or are daily being built by different nobles of Hindostan 
to the glorification of Ramchandar, his generals and other members of his royal race. 
There are also six Mandirs of the Jain faith to which allusion has already been made. 

The cradle alike of Ilind'&s, B'Adhista and Jains . — It is not easy to over-estimate 
the historical importance of the place which at various times and in different ages 
has been known by the names of Kosala, Ajudhiii and Oudh ; because it may be said 
to have given a religion to a large portion of the human race, being the cradle alike 
of the Hindus, the Budhists, and the Jains. 

In the earliest ages, the Hindfis were divided into the two great lines of solar 
and lunar Chhatris, from whom all other Chliatris are, by courtesy, descended ; and of 
the former line Kosala was at once the Kingdom and the Capital. Of this territory 
Ikshawakti was the first solar King. When he lived is chronologically unknown, but 
Hindd Mythology takes him back to within a few removes of Brahma, the Creator. 
Thirty sixth in descent from Ikshawakfi was Rfima, the typical Chhatri subjuga- 
tor of the South, and the glory of Ajudhifi ; the contemporary perhaps of Solomon, 
. who was followed by some sixty more of his line before it became obliterated. 

Of Budhism too, Kosald has without doubt, a strong claim to be considered tho 
mfttlfer. Kapila and Kasinagara both in Gorakhpfir and both of that country (Kosald) 
are the Alpha and Omega of Sakya Mfini, tlie founder of that faith. It was at 
Kapila that he was born; it was at Ajudhi^that he preached, perhaps composed those 
doctrines which have conferred upon him a world-wide fame; and it was at Kasinagara 
that he finally reached that much desiderated stage of annihilation by sanctification, 
which is known to his followers as Nirvana B. C. 550. 

Again it is in AjddhiS, that we still see pointed out the birth-place of the founder 
as well as of four others of the chief-hierarchs of the Jain faith. Here it was that 
Rikabdeo of Ikshawaku^s rftyal race matured the schism, somewhat of a compromise 
between Brahminism and Btidhism, with which his name will ever be associated. 

In Ajddhid then, we have the mother of the Hindfis, as typified by EAma, the 
conqueror of the South ; of the Bddhists, as being the scene of the first great protest 

( 9 ) 

against caste by tbe oripnator of a creed whose disciples are still counted by millions; 

^d of the Jains,, as being the birth-place of the originator of doctrines which are 
still revered by several of our most influential mercantile families. 

There are two traditions of the Jains that are at least curious. The one has 
just been mentioned that the founder of the Jain creed was of the Ajtidhi^i solar race: 
the other, and it is maintained by the Khattris also, that only such Chhatris as are 
descended from Jains are pure ! There is here a good deal of room for speculation. 
Abu was the fountain head of the Jain faith; there the founder of that faith lived 
and died, and on that-mount there is still a temple to his revered memory nearly 1000 
years old. It was at Abu too, it will be remembered, that a convocation of the gods 
recreated the Agnicula quartet of Chhatris, to put down the Budhists and atheists who 
had overrun the country. May not this mythical recreation point to the revival of 
Brahminism in even the very stronghold of the Jain faith ? It is with this agnicula 
recreation on mount Abu that many of the oldest of our Chhatri clans seek to connect 
their origin. Such a recreation is of course absurd, but it is not absurd to suppose 
that Abu, peopled with the descendants of Ikshawaku, a solar prince of Oiidh, may 
have been the scene of a Brahminical revival which spread far and wide, reaching in 
time the Chauhans of Maiiipuri, and through one of them, Bariar Singh, the founder 
of at least 4 of our present chief families, extending itself into eastern Oudh also, 
where tlie darkness of the Magadh period was yet represented by the disbelieving 
caste neglecting Bhars. < 

The Sarju . — The origin of the river Sarjii is highly fanciful. On an occasion of 
mirth tears of joy flowed from the eyes of Ntlrain, the Supremo Being, which were 
reverently saved from falling to the ground by Brahma, the Creator, who caught them 
in his watcrcan (kamandal) and carefully deposited them in the Mansarwor lake. 
When the city of Ajddhid had been fairly established the people longed for the sight 
of flowing water, and they made known their wishes to the far famed Local Divine 
Vasisht Mflni (the ancestor of the Vasisht tribe of Brahmins). The latter entered into 
the spirit of their wishes and by severe penance and sacrifices to Brahma, the tear- 
preserved waters of Mansarwar were made to flow past the city of bliss. For these 
reasons the Sarjfl is still sometimes fancifully called the Vasisht-ki-kunny^, or the 
Vasisht nymph, and also Vasisht Gunga. 


The Ajudhid Mahdtim . — No account of Ajudhid would bo complete which did * 
not throw some light on the lldmuyan and tlie Ajhdhid Mahdtum. Of the former of 
these works, I need not speak, for through the writings of Wheeler, Cust, Monier 
Williams &c. most readers ard familiar therewith. I will therefore confine my remarks 
to the AJlidhid Mahatum, which is comparatively unknown. 

This work was prepared to the glorification of Ajhdhid according to some, by 
Ikshawaku of the Solar race, while others with more probability aver that it is a 
transcript from the Askundh and Padam Purans, and is not the production of any 
Rdja, Be that as it may it is well that the essence of the work should be made 
available to the public, and in this view Mr. Woodburn c. s. has been good enough to 
make a connected abstract for me, from a literal translation which I bad made some 
years ago. This abstract is given as Appendix B. 

Limits of Oud/i.— It is not always easy to comprehend what is meant by the 
Oudh or Ajfldhid of ancient times, for that territory has been subjected to many 
changes. So far as these are known to me, I give them hel 5 >w— 

The Oudh of jRdma.— Such intelligent natives as Mdhdrdja Mdn Singh have 
informed Ine tliat at this period Oudh waa divided into five portions, thus : — (1) KosoM 

present Trans^Qogra districts of Qorakhpflr, Bustb 

( 10 ) 

Gondah and Baraich. (2) Pachhamrath, which included the country between the rivers 
Gogra and Gorati, extending westwards from Ajddhifi^ to Nimkhdr in Sitapfir. 

(3) Purabrath, or the territory between the same rivers, extending eastwards towards 
Jaunpur, the limit not being traceable. (4) Arbar being the country around Pertab- 
gurh, lying between the rivers Gomti and Son, probably the same that is still known 
as Aror or Arwar : and (5) Sillidndy which included some portion of the Nepdl hills 
running along the then Oudh frontier. 

The Oudh of Akbar,— Mention is made of the title of Subad^r of Oudh as early 
as A. D. 1280, and it was one of the 15 Subds or Governorships into which Akbar 
subdivided the empire in 1590 A. D. The Mahamadan attempt to change the name 
from Oudh to Akhtarnagar, never seems to have succeeded fully. 

The boundaries of the old Suba differed materially from those of the present 
day, and a large part of what is now the eastern portion of the Province, including 
Tdndd, Aldcmau, Mdnikpfir, &c., was not in those days included in Subd Oudh, but 
in Allahabad. According to the Ain-i-Akbari the Suba then extended from and 
inclusive of Sirkar Gorakhptir, to hLanouj, and from the Himalayas to Suba Allahabad, 
135 kos by 115 kos. 

Suba Oudh contained five Sirkars, vk, (1) Oudh ; (2) Lucknow ; (3) Baraich ; 

(4) Khyrabad ; and (5) Gorakhpur. The details of these are given below, but they are 
* only approximately correct, and in regard to some jdaces my information is incomplete. 

‘ I. SarJear Oudh.-^This contained 21 Parganas and 3 Dasturs, {ls follows . 


Old name of Pargana 

Present name of Pargana. 

. . 1 

Present District. 



or Dastur. 



Haveli Oudh, ... 









Bai Bareilly. 






Tliana Bliedaon, 









rXhis Pargana has 





< been included in 
(. Mahomadpiir. 








Bai Bareilly. 





































Subehd, ... 


Bai Bareilly. 


Sirwap&li, ••• 




Easni, >.* 



rThis Pargana baa 



Nepurd Urf Iltifatjanj,.., 


< been included in 
(. Tandd. 

( 11 ) 

II. Sarkax Lucknow contained 65 Mah^s and 2 Dastfirs as given below 

Old nam^ of^Hrgana Present name of Pargana. Present District. Semarks. 


2 Undo, 

3 Isoli, 

4 Asywan, 

5 A solid, 

6 Unclmgdou, 

7 llilgrdrn, 

8 Baiigarmau, 
y Bijiior, 

10 Bari. ; 

11 Bangawan. 

12 Bitholi, 

13 Punhan, 

14 Par.^indan, 

15 Patan, 

1() Barasliikor, 

17 Jliilotar, 

18 Deva, 

10 Ora. 

20 Dinharpur. 

21 Lot. ram. 

22 Saiulild, 

23 Sydhipur, 

2t 8aroM 8atunpur. 

2i) Piinhani, 

20 Shoopur, 

27 Sidlior, 

28 Saiidai, 

29 Sarwan, 

30 Faitt'lipur, 

31 Pattohjiur Chordsi, 

32 Gaj-li 

33 Kursi, 

31 Kdlfori, 

36 Lunjra. 

36 CJbdtampur, 

37 Kucha Indore, 

38 Kararidd, 

39 Kothi, 

40 Luckiiow-ba-IIaveli, 

41 Laslikar. 

42 Maliabad, 

43 Maldwdu, 

44 Mohan, 

45 Mora wan, 

40 Murydoii, 

47 Arahond, 

48 Mainwi, 

49 Mukrand. 

50 Haflid. 

51 Hardiii, 

52 Bchar, 

63 Dcorakh, 

64 Bharanp'ur. 

66 JVot kn9wn. 
















J ilotliar, 










Fattchpur Chordsi, 

(larli Amctlii,, 







Bhagwantnagar Malawan, 

Moran n, 


Mahond, ,,, 
















Bai Bareilly. 

Kai Bareilly. 












Sul tan pur. 

Bai Bareilly, 


I Lucknow. 






Do. ^ 



Bai Bareilly. 

III. Sarkar Baraich, contained 11 Mahdls and 3 Dasttirs as detailed below:— 

( 12 ) 

IV. Sarkar KhyrSbid contwned 22 Mahils and 8 Dastdrs as follows >— 



Old name of Pargana 
or DastiiT. 

Pr()sent name of Pargana. 

Present District. 











Pali| ••• 













Bburwdra, , 

Do. « 














Khyrabad Haveli, 






1 Hardui. 


















1 Kherigarh, 


















' Do. 




Do. 1 




11 Urdu i. 

V. Sarkar Gorakhpur comprised 25 Mahals and Dustur.s. 



Old name of Pargana 
or Da.stur. 

Present name of Pargana. 

Present District. 





































Dhewapdra Kuhana, 





Kchli Hawabgunj, 



Pasulpdr Gho.s, 

Ba.sulpur Ghos, 





Gorakhpur, ... 



This is included in 



















Mondla, ... j 



Batanpur, Jdnki, 

Batanpur Bdnsi, 



Salompdr Majhowli, ... 





Sidhori Jobnd, ... ' 

' Sidhod Jobna, ... • 





Sylhet, ... 





^ Now adde4 to Sar- 
kar Gbrakhpur. 


Mansumagar, Bustf, ... 

Mansdr I7agar Busti, 


; 25 

Aurungabdd Hagar, 

Aurungabad Na^ar, ... 

Do, • ' 

( 10 ) 

The Oudh cf 8hAjd^-dowlak.-—At this period Qorakhpfir and Azimgarh were 
of the Province, and with the co'-operation and aid of the English, Kurra, Allahabad 
and Rohelkhund were added to it. Gh^zipur and Benares were made over to the 
English during this reign, 

Tlie Oudh of Sadut Ali , — In this reign the Province was reduced by the trans- 
fer to the British by treaty, of Rohelkhund, Allahabad, Farrakabad, Mainpuri, Etawd 
Gorakhpur, Azimgarh, Cawnptir and Fattchpur, and in Ghdzi-ud-din Haidar s reign 
which followed, the Nepal Terai, given back by Lord Canning after the Mutiny, was 
added by us to the Kingdom. So, with the exception of some changes of Parganas for 
mutual convenience, on\ho Allahabad, Gorakhpur and Rohelkhund frontiers, the 
Province remained till wo acquired it in 1856. 

The town of Ajddhid comprised the lands of four entire mauzas, (Barehta, which 

has been washed 
away, Faridiphr, 
Bagh Kesari Singh, 
and Rowza S h ^ h 
Juran) and portions 
of three others; 
(Ranupali, Mirdpdr 

and Derabibi;) besides Kasbdh Kirki. It contains tlie 26 mohallahs marginally 

Bazdr Sliergatij. 
Gaffwan Tollah. 
niiararia Tollali. 
Babhan Kuliah. 
Bazdari Tollah. 
Vasliist Kund, 
T(*nrlii Bazar. 

10 Shokhlina. 

11 Miraphr. 

12 Kundurpuriu 

13 Shah Madar. 

14 Kaziand. 

15 Begampura. 

16 Buxaria Tollah. 

17 Durbar Dwara. 

18 Panji Tollali. 

Dorahe Kuan. 
Dliana Mandi. 




Hateh Surat Singh. 
Urdu Bazir. 


The City of Fyzahad , — This city is situated in 26^^ 40' N. Latitude and 82'’ 20' E. 
Longitude. It is 881 feet above the level of the sea. It is on the left bank of the 
Gogra or Sarju, and 78 miles east of Lucknow. It is nearly 70 miles south of the 
nearest point of the Himalayas, which arc often clearly visible, especially about 
tlie end of the rains, and it is our frontier station tor European Troops as regards 

Fyzabad was the capital of the earlier members of the Oudh “ Mansuridh” dy- 
nasty, and its history cannot be told without giving a slight sketch of each member of 
that line. 

8ddnt Khan, Suhculdr. — 8ddut Khan alias Mohamad Amin Burhdn-ul-Mulk 
was a native of Irfiri and was transferred from the Siibadarship of Agra to that of 
Outlli ill 1782 A. D. He resided chiefly at Ajiidhia where lie built the Kild Mobdrak 
at Lachhinan Ghat, but he also frequently visited Lucknow, and he changed the name 
of the great fort there from Kila Liknii to Maclilii Bhawan. Sddut Khan was of 
noble famih^, a good soldier and able administrator ; his sympathies were with the 
people wliom he encouraged, at the expense of their chiefs. “ His ability and manage- 
ment established a sovereignty ; his faithlessness brought him to a premature ^nd 
ignominious end,” He poisoned himself, A. D. 1739, leaving a wclbfillod Treasury. 

The city of Fyzabad was in those days a Kcordh jungle, and in this the Nawkb 
was in the frequent habit of shooting. Here, on the high bank of the Sarju he built 
himself a shooting-box, or bungalow, from which circumstance tlie locality was ever 
afterwards known by the name of Bungalow. The building is still pointed out in the 
compound of the Opium Agency, of which it is one of the out-offices. During this 
rule the Dilktisha palace is said to have been commenced, but ere the city was fairly 
founded the Nawdb was gathered to his fathers. • 

Marisdr All Khan, Subaddr and Vazir, — Abdul Manser All Khan, Safdar Jang 
alias MirzA Muhamad Mukim, succeeded his uncle and father-in-law in 1759 A. D., 
and in his person the oflSce of ruler in Oudh became hereditary. Of the city of Fyzft- 

bad this ruler was the real founder, although he also spent a good of his time at 
Lucknow. He was an able^ but unscrupulous ruler, he behaved treacherously to his 
allies the Farakhabad family, with whom he afterwards ’had much fighting. His De- 
puty, R^ja Newal Rai, a brave Kaiet whose palace is still an ornament to the river 
face at Ajtidhid, was slain in these encounters, and the Nawdb was himself wounded 
and put to flight; but he lived to invoke the aid of the Marahtas, and in the end he 
humbled and crippled his opponents. Mansfir- Ali was for a time a successful courtier, 
and it was his Delhi influence that ensured his succession in preference to his brother. 
He afterwards acquired the office of Vazir of the Empire, but this he again lost before 
his death, which occurred A. D., 1753-4*. 

Sliuja-nd-dowla, Nawah Vazir, — Sh'iija-ud-dowla, succeeded his father in oppo- 
sition to his cousin Muhamad Kuli Khan, Governor of Allahabad, and established his 
dynasty. He fixed his capital at Fyzabt|id and his visits to Lucknow were occasional. 
Ho married in 1743 A. D., the Bahu Begam a native of Persia, and the grand-daughter 
of Mirza Husain the chef of Alamgirs kitchen. The Naw^b fought the English at 
Patna, Buxar, and Kurra, 1763-5, and was beaten. In the distribution of territories 
that followed, Benares and Ghazipur fell to the English, while Kurra, Allahabad and 
Rohelkhund were added to Oudh, to the Rohella Naw^b of the latter country being 
left the Rampur Jagir. Shuja-ud-dowla died at Fyzabad in 1775 A. D., and he was the 
first of his lino whose body was not carried West, that his ashes might mingle with the 
dust of his fathers. He was buried at Fyzabad in the Oul^b-bari, a Mausoleum which 
is still an ornament to the place, as to a still greater extent, is that of his widow the 
Begam. The manner of the Nawab’s death is variously stated, one version being that 
he was frightened out of the world by the Francis majority of Warren Hastings’ Coun- 
cil, a less improbable one is that he was stabbed with a poisoned dagger while trying 
to take liberties with the daughter of the Nawab of Farakhabad. Opinions differ 
widely as to the merits of this ruler, and they have been tlius summed up by Sir II. 
Lawrence. “ Ho was an able energetic and intelligent prince, and possessed at least 
the ordinary virtues of eastern rulers.” 

Mahometan buildings , — Most of the old Mahomedan buildings of Fyzabad as 
well as the great earthworks round the city, and the fort near the bridge of boats 
formerly known as “ Chhota Calcutta,” may be attributed to this rule, and from the 
date of the Begara^s death in A. D., 1816 till annoxatiom the city gradually fell into 
decay. A list is attached, appendix C. of the Mahomedan buildings of interest of the 

Asf'Ud-Dowla, Naivab Vazir. — Asf-ud-Dowla, Y^sin Khan, Huzabar Jang, 
alias Mirza Am^lni, succeeded his father as Nawdb Vazir without opposition, on the 
31st of January 1775. For the details of this rule the reader has only .to refer to 
Macaulay’s Essay on Warren Hastings, or to Slceman’s Journal. In ortjer that he 
might be as far away as possible from his mother, the Bahu Begam, this Nawdb 
finally transferred the Capital from Fyzabad to Lucknow, where it has since remained. 
Th^ Francis majority had wrongfully made over the state surplus of her husband, to 
the Bahu Begam, and to recover this and to lend it to Hastings, was a business that 
was not quite rightfully set about by the son, Asf-ud-DowIa. The Dilkusha palace 
(Opium godown) already the residence, now became the prison of the Begam mother, 
and the Kandi kothi (Commissariat house) has since become historical, in connection 
with the sufferings of the faithful eunuchs. But these are 
add^h^ to him” f/uoknow times on which it is needless to dwell. Asf-ud-Dowla, who 
" has been described as one of the weakest and most vicious 

evpn of eastern princes,”* died on the 21st September 1793 
AW is buried in the great Iraambdrd at Lucknow. 

The remaining members pf the dynasty have little porsonal concem lyith Fyzabad, 
it is enough for dur present purpose that thpir history should be.|jriefly skfetchod 

^ owes muoh of its iaiue as a 
Mat of learning. 

; teble ' 

( 15 ) 

Name birthplace 
and title. 

Date of appoint^ , 
meht or snocession. 

1 Date of death or 

Vazir Ali 
Natoih Vazir. 

Succeeded his 
father 2l8t Sep- 
tember 1797. 


Deposed by Sir, 
John Shore 2l8t 
January 1798. 

la Nizam-ul- 
miilk Sddat 
Ali Khdn Mo- 
baris Jang, iVa- 
v)dh Faz/r. 

Brotlier of Asf- 
ud-Dowla pro- 
claimed 2lBt 
January 1798. 

Died llth July 

Haidar Shalid 
matjang, the 
first King A. D, 

Son of above suc- 
ceeded 11th July 

Died 22nd 
October 1827. 


Haidar, Kin^. 

Sou of above suc- 
ceeded 22nd Octo- 
ber 1827. 

Died or was. 
poisoned on 
7th July 1837. 

Muhamad Ali 
Shah alias Na- 

Uncle of the above 
and sen of Sddat 
Ali Klian crown- 
ed July 1837. 

Died 16th May 

Amjad Ali Sbdh 

Succeeded his 
father, May 1842 

Died 13th Feb- 
ruary 1847. 

Wajid Ali Shfih, 
the last of the 
Oudh Kings. 

Succeeded his 
fisithcr February 

Deposed 13th 
February 1866. 


In Sir H. Lawrence's opinion Vazir Ali was 
unjustly treated. He was placed under surreil* 
lance at Benares, where he organized the massacre 
of the Europeans and having been given up by 
the lUja of Jaipur on condition that his life was 
spared, he died after many years, a prisoner at 

Bohellchund,Allahab^, Farakh&bad, Mainpuri, 
Etawa, Gorakhpur, Azimgarh, Cawnpur and Fat- 
tchpur made over by Oudh to the English by 
treaty, and as a set off all Revenue assignments 
were resumed and largo chiefs degraded. The 
Nawab was a reclaimed drunkard, of penurious 
habits, and of whose administration Sir H. Law- 
rence has recorded, that it was “ in advance of the 
Bengal Government of the day, in Revenue 

The Nep&l Terai added to Oudh in lieu of a 
loan. An imbecile and dissipated ruler, whom 
we enthroned for assistance in connexion with the 
Nepdl and Burmd wars. 

More dissipated and ignorant than his father, 
the original of the ruler who figures in the " Pri- 
vate Life of an Eastern King." 

Accession disputed unsuccessfully by Mund Jau 
the reputed son of the last king, Muhamad Ali 
was parsimonious and well tutored in the art of 
administration The builder and endower of the 
Husainabod Imdmbdrd. 

Succeeded as second son to the exclusion of 
Nawdb Murataz-ud-Dowla the son of the elder son 
Asghnr Ali, who was barred under the Mahomed- 
an Law, as his father died before his grandfather. 
This king is mentioned by Sir H. Lawrence as a 
nonentity in his own eourt, but he is popularly 
remembered as a lover of his devotions, and a 
hater of oppression. 

With natural capacity and education ho was a 
prey to animal passions, for the enjoyment of 
w'hich he sacrificed his public duties ; warned of 
the results of this conduct by Lord Hnrdinge in 
1847, he neglected the advice tendered, and he 
consemiently surrendered hia kingdom for a pon- 
sion of £120,000 per annmn in 1850. • • 

The city of Fyzabad comprises the lands of mauza Khdrdabad entire, and of por- 
tions, of eight villages marginally indicated. 
But the Sofil (correctly faail) or city forti- 
fications (thrown up by Shuja-ud-dowWi after 
his defeat at Buxar, under the impression ^ 
that the British would follow up their victory and at once attack him,) takes in the 
lands in all of nineteen villages. Duiit)g the Begam’s life time, these nineteen villages 
were <^n8idered l^aziil t^e ooUeetiohs were made accordingly, but after her death : 

tiie'lajSd’mehw . ' / -a-' . 

1. JanaurA 

2. MozafrA. 

8. Sultanp^i 
4. BanupilL 

6. Gaurapstti. 

6. Niinwin 

7. Ser&i Haidar, 

8. Ehcjnipdr. 

( 1« ) 

Section IV.— The Mutinies and reoccupation. 

The city of 
Pyzabod contains 
no less than forty- 
nine* mahallds as 
per margin : — 

The Fyzabad 
Jlfuti-nT/.— The 
story of the Fyza- 
bad mutiny has 
been thus told by 
Mr. Gubbins, the 
former Financial 

“ At Fyzabad were posted the 22nd Regiment of Native Infantry, commanded by 
Colonel Lennox, the 6tli Oudh Irregular Infantry by Colonel O'Brien, and a Native 
Light Field Battery under Major Mill. The Commissioner, Colonel Qoldney, whose 
Head Quarters and family were at Sultanpur, had removed to Fyzabad, as the more 
important position, and exposed to the greatest danger. The 22nd Regiment Native 
Infantry was known to have shown signs of disaffection ; and the Gth Irregulars, the old 
native “ Barlow ki Paltan", was the worst in the old Oudh service. The Native Battery, 
though commanded by a noble follow. Mill, could not bo depended on. Much anxiety, 
therefore, had long prevailed at Fyzabad, 

At the beginning of the month Raja M^n Sing, talukddr of Shahganj, was in con- 
finement there. Ho had been arrested by order of the Chief Commissoncr, in conse- 
quence of information telegraphed from Calcutta, which accorded with what had 
Tca-ched us at Lucknow. At this juncture he sent for the Britisli authorities, warned 
them that the troops would rise, and offered, if released, to give the Europeans shelter 
in his fort at Shdhganj. Seeing the critical state of things, Colonel Goldney released 
him, and Man Sing at once commenced to put his fort in order, and to raise levies. 
Soon, liowever, the troops disclosed their intentions. Tlioy demanded that the public 
treasure should be surrendered to them, on the plea of better security. Helpless, the 
authorities were compelled to comply, and the money was carried off to their lines 
amidst the shouts of the mutineers. The civilians now prepared for the worst, and sent 
their families to Shahganj, But the ladies from Cantonments would not accompany 
them, relying on the faith of the Native Officers of the 22nd Regiment, who had 
solemnly sworn to Mrs, Lennox that no injury should be done them. 

Matters remained in this state until it became known that the 17th Regiment 
N. I from Azimgarh, were approaching with a body of Irregular Cavalry and two guns, 
having mutinied and possessed themselves of a large amount of treasure. When this 
■ regiment reached Begamganj, within one march of Fyzabad, about the 8th or 9th of 
-Tune, the regiments at Fyzabad threw off further disguise, and openly revolted. The 
QiviJ Officers, Captain J. Reid, Captain Alex : Orr, and Mr. Bradford, thereupon 
mounted and rode off to Shahganj. Tlio mutineers bade their Officers depart, and 
told them they might take the boats then lying at the Cantonment ghat. These were 
without the necessary roof of thatch, and almost without a boatman. There was no 
help for it All the Officers, therefore, except Colonel Lennox, embarked in them, 
and rowed the boats themselves down the stream, exposed to the burning sun. 

Little did they then know the plan laid for their destruction by the mutineers. 
Begamganj, where the 17th Native Infantry lay, is on the banks of the Gogrd, and the 
current of the river, sweeps underneath it A messenger liad been despatched by the , 
22nd Regiment to the 17th, announcing that they bad sent- off their Officers, and in- 
vHing'the 17th to destory them. Fearfully was the invitation responded to. As the 
boats containing the refugees approached, they were met by a fere of grape musketiy 

u uniJer which many Officers fell. Several jumped out into the Water, and attempted t6^ 

*1. Bauiganj. 

2. Amanigtinj. 

8. Isimelganj. 

4. H4U Atal Khdn. 

6. Baliadurgacj'. 

6, MyauK&nj. 

7. Bath Uaveli. 

A Aligarh. 

9. Kashmiri Mohulla. 

10. Khurdab&d. 

11. Sahabganj. 

12. HiU Bulla. 

13. Dehli Durwifa. 

14. Baz^ AH Mirza Khan. 
16. Konkri liazar. 

16, Hdtd Mohamad Panah. 

17. Begamganj. 

18. Ardali Bazdr. 

19. Dow^i Miesil. 

20. Haanu Eatra. 

21. Vazirganj. 

22. Sabzi Mandi. 

23. Fulsidi Bashir. 

24. Khudagur^. 

25. Mughulpdra. 

26. Hata Khusrobog. 

27. Golab B4ri (Beidganj) 

28. Chok. 

29. Nakhas. 

30. Kotha Parch4. 

81. Mahajai Tola. 

32. Futteliganj. 

83. Begamganj. 

34. Naka Mozufra. 

85. Haidarganj. 

36. Paharganj 

37. Dal Mandi. 

88. BasiTola. 

39. Tamaku Mandi. 

40. KussdbBdrA 

41. Pdhdrganj. 

42. Bakdbganj (Zavanah- 

43. Bazdr Salargaiij. 

44. Kandhari Bazdr. 

45. Chakla. 

46. Taksar. . . 

47. Khirki Alibeg. 

48. Bazdr Odlhan Begam. 

49. Zomaradganj. 

f» ) , 

«wim to the opposite bank. In the attempt Major Mill, Lieutenant E. Currie, Artil- 
lery^ and Lieutenant Parsons, of the 6th 0. 1. Infantry, were drowned. Some who 
reached the other side fell victims to a party of insurgent villagers. ♦ Colonel Goldney 
was taken from his boat and led up the bank to the Mutineer Camp. '1 am an old man,” 
"said he, will you disgrace yourselves by my murder f They shot him down. A rem- 
nant of the Officers only made their escape down the river, 
and reached a place of safety. It is but just hero to state that 
Colonel Goldney, from every account which has reached me, 
maintained a most gallant and manly bearing during these 
trying scenes at Fyzabad. He had before commanded the 
22nd Regiment, and long maintained his confidence in them, 
and this, perhaps, was the reason for his not accompanying the other Civil Officers to 

Colonel Lennox and his family left the station separately, crossed the river, and 
readied the station of Gorakhpfir in safety, 

Mdn Sing sheltered the fugitives who had taken refuge with him for a few days, 
and then from real or affecced fear of the mutineers, desired them to depart. He, 
however, provided boats for them on the Gogra, to which they were escorted by night ; 
and a party of M^n Singes levies accompanied them some way on their journey. They 
all reached the station of Dindpur in safety. 

Mrs, Mill, tlie wife of Major Mill, of the Artillery, made a perilous escape. Un- 
willing to expose her children to the sun, she had lost the opportunity of leaving the 
station with Colonel Lennox, and found herself left alone. She succeeded, however, 
in making her way alone through the country, and at length reached a British station. 
She had walked the whole way, wandering from village to village. The women in the 
villages were kind to her, but she lost one of her children, from illness and exposure, 
on the way. 

After the English Officers had left, the 17th Native Infantry entered the Station ; 
and before long, a dispute arose between them and the Fyzabad mutineers. The for- 
mer had brought away a large treasure, but possessed little ammunition. Their tum- 
brils, it was known, were filled with treasure instead of shot. The Fyzabad mutineers 
accordingly demanded a share of it, and on this being refused, both parties prepared for 
action. The dispute was, however, settled by the 17th Native Infantry paying down 
a lac and sixty thousand rupees ; and they were then allowed to depart. They 
marched through Oudh by a cross road, making their way towards Cawnpfir, and reached 
the Ganges opposite that Station Just in time to take a part in the cruel destruction of 
the unhappy fugitives from the Cawnpfir massacre. R^j6 Min Sing, with whom 
I was then in almost daily communication, kept me informed of their movements and 
of their want of ammunition ; and wrote me that 500 match-lock men could wrest the 
treasure from them as they passed not far from Lucknow, I hoped that an attempt 
might have been made to intercept them'. Sir Henry Lawrence, however, deci^e(J 
against the measure. 

The Fyzabad mutineers first placed at their head a certain fanatic Molvi, whom 
they released from our goal. They proclaimed him to be chief, and fired a sllute in 
honor of him. This man had come from Madras, and was of a good Mahomedan 
family, and had traversed much of Upper India, exciting the people to sedition He 
had been expoUed from Agra. In April he appeared with several followers at 
Fyzabad, where he circulatted seditious papers, and openly proclaimed a religious war; 
The police were ordered to arrest him ; he and his Mowers resisted with arms! 
It was found necessary to call in the military, and then'he was not captured until 
several of his followers were slain. He was tried and recommended for execution ; 
but this had delayed in consequence of some informality, and he was still in goal 
vn^the mtitiny oaf. , ; ' ® . . 


♦ lieutenant A. Bright, A. F. 
Eugliih, J. E. Lindesay, W. H. 
• Thomas, Q. L. Oautley J. W. 
Andorson, and T. J. Ritchie, 
are known to hare perished on 
this sad occasion. 

riaod, cajoled and flattered the native office, dhd despatched his brother Bamddhitt, 
to Cawnpfir on a mission to the Ndnl* Meanwhile, through confidential agents, 
he maintained a correspondence with us. The mutineers loitered some time at 
Fyzabad, but eventually marched to Bariiibdd ; and towards the end of the month 
arrived in the general 'mutineer camp at Naw^bganj Barabunkee.*' 

Fyzahad re-occupied.— FyzahsiA was re-occupied by Sir Hope Grant on the Slst 
July 1858, on the flight of the rebels. Our troops left Lucknow under all the disad- 
vantages of season and encumbered with endless baggage, to relieve Mdhd 
Mdn Sing at Shahganj, which was then besieged by the rdbel Nazims, Mehdi Hasan 
and Muhamad Husan. No fighting ensued. 

Section V.— Places of special interest. 

I will now conclude my account of Fyzabad and Ajudhi4 with some notes about 
the places of most general interest, as we at present find them. 

The Haniimdn Oarhi, or monkey temple^ and the different orders of Aj'ddhid 

The MoItW reign wae, h^ever, net of lon^ duration/ day$ tie 

eed, and the lerdershib offered to RAja M£n Siug. The crafty l^lrahmin 

It is traditionally affirmed that when R‘1m Giandar returned from the conquest 
of Ceylon, and occupied the fortress in Ajudhi^, which is known by his name, and 
the bastions and earthworks of which are still pointed out, he assigned to his various 
Generals their different posts, giving to the much trusted Hanuman, the leader of the 
monkey army, the command of the tower at the main entrance or gate, which was 
thenceforth called “ Hanum^in chanrii.” This command Ilanumdn is said to have 
retained until the Ajtidhi^ of those days was conveyed away to heaven. It is affirmed 
that up to Mansdr Ali Khan’s time offerings to Hanumdn, of flowers, red-lead 
&c., were made at the foot of a glorious old tamarind tree, known by the name of 
Rdm Chaurd. On a certain occasion the Nawdb just named was seized with a severe 
illness, which it was thought, was curc<l by the prayers of Abhi Rdm, the chief of 
the then mendicants of Ajudhid, and this secured for the latter Munsfir Ali’s good 
offices and gratitude. 

Hanfimdn is said subsequently to have appeared to Abhi Rum in a vision, and to 
have desired him to build a temple at Rdm Chaurd, and this 
he accordingly did. Such was the comparatively recent origin 
of the Hanfimdn Garhi as we see it, to which many additions, and 
repairs have since been made. The Mahants who have presided 
over this establishment since its completion, are marginally 

Abhi Bam. 

J agarnath Dae 

Mangal D^s 
Oudh Ram 
Balram Das 

named, the last being the present incumbent. 

We have it on the authority of Professor Wilson, that in the Qangetic Provinces the 
Brahmins are now null as a hierarchy, they having been supplanted by the monastic 
cyders. The earliest trace of these orders in the Hindfi books, is in the 8th century, and 
few of those now existing according to Elphinstone, are older than the 14th century^ 
Some orders are still composed of Brahmins alope, but the distinguishing peculiarity 
of the great majority of those orders is, that all distinctions of caste are levelled on 
admission. All renounce their own class, and become equal members of their new 
community. An order generally derives its character from a particular spirittial 
instructor whose doctrines it maintains, and by whose rules the members are l)Ound. 
Most orders possess convents to which lands ate^, often attached. They are under a 
i^ahunt or Abbot who is sometimes elected, sometimes hereditary. Novices are 
l^^tted as probatibnewt celibacy is general Few pf the orders are under strict 
•^i^and they have no attendance at chapels, general fasts, vigils or other inonkish 

^ it may 


pxofi^t^ries wiA at, in the 7th century, and also a large 

j63^mthic4 'p^^ with about 20 of their temples ; so that after the revival of 
Brahni^ism the idea of monasteries was probably borrowed from the Bddhists : or 
may it not have been that whole monasteries went fVbm the one faith to the other, 
as they stood ? If a Oour Brahmin in these days can legitimately supervise a Jain 
temple, it seems just possible that the sectarian feelings of the Brahminists and 
Budhists and Jains of former times, were less bitter than we are liable to suppose. 

The monastic ofdefs, — -There are seven Akhdr^ or cloisters of the monastic 
orders, or Bairagia, disciples of Vishnu, in ‘Ajudhia, each of which is presided over 
by a Mahant or Abbot ; these are : — 

1. Nirbdni, or silent sect, who have their dwelling in Handmdn Garhi. 

2. The Nirmohit or void of affection sect, who have establishments at 
Ramgh&t, and Gdptflrgh&t. 

3. Llgamhari, or naked sect of ascetics, 

4 The Khaki or ash-besmeared devotees. 

5. The Maha-nirbdnif or literally dumb branch. 

6. The Saritokhij or patient family. 

7. The Nir-alambhi,, or provisionlcss sect. 

The expenses of these different establishments of which the first is by far the 
most important, are met from the Revenues' of lands which have been assigned to 
them ; from the offerings of pilgrims and visitors ; and from the alms collected by the 
disciples in their wanderings all over India. 

The Nirbani secty — I believe the Mahant of the Nirbani Akhdrd or lis>miTnkTL* 
1. Kiahon DnBi, g^^rhi, has 600 disciples, of whom as many as 3 or 400 are gene- 
a! Muni^iu'rai. attendance, and to whom rations are served out at noon 

A. Jankisuraii Dasi. daily. The prcsciit incumbent has divided his followers into four 
Thoks or parties, to whom the names of four disciples, as marginally noted, have 
been given, 

There appear to be as I have already pointed out in my “ Notes on Races, &c.,** 
several grades of discipleship in connexion with these establishments. 

I. There are the ordinary worshippers of all the different Hindd castes, who 
still retaining their position in the world and their home ties, become disciples in the 
simple hcfpe that their prayers offered under the auspices of their spiritual guides, 
will be hoard and their temporal wishes granted. 

IL There are also those who forsaking the world and their homes, join 
the fraternity of devotees in view solely to their eternal well being, a privilege which 
is within the reach of all castes of Hindus. Of these latter those who were Brahmins 
and Chhatris before initiation are exempted from manual labor, while the menial 
offices of cooking, sweeping, water drawing &c. devolve upon those of the brethren 
who were originally of the lower castes. 

A disciple of th^ 2nd class is for a time admitted as a novice and intrusted, 
with unimportant secular offices only.' He is then required to make a round of the 
great places of pilgrimage such as DwilrkdJagamath,Gya&c. &a, and on bi$ return 
thence he is finally admitted to all the privileges of theVrder ; celibacy is enforced, 
and those wto surreptitiously marry,, Or st^, are expelled from the brotherhood, { 
^ Brahminfi^ Ohh^i^s are . admitt^ to membership without limit as to age, 

, ^ under tbipTiage of sixteen years, so that they mi^ • 


readily inbibe the doctrines of the order. The orders of the Mahant and his advisers, 
the heads of Thoks, must be implicity obeyed. The best of the disciples are chosen to 
remain at the temple to conduct the devotions in solitude. 

NirmoM sect — It is said that one Qobind Dds came from Jaipdr some 200 years 
ago and having acquired a few Bighas of revenue-free land, he built a shrine and settled 
himself at Ram Ghat. Mahant Tulshi Dds is the sixth in succession. There are 
now two branches of this order, one at Ram Ghat, and the other occupying the temples 
at Gtjptdr Ghdt. They have rent free holdings in Busti, Mank&,p6r and Khurdabad. 

TJie Digamhari sect — Siri Balrani came to Ajddhid 200 years ago, whence it 

is not known, and having built a temple settled hero. Mahant HirA Dds is the 
seventh incumbent. The establishment of resident disciples is very small being 
limited to 15 j they have several revenue free holdings in the district. 

The Khdhi sect — When Ramchandr became an exile from Ajudhi^ his brother 
Xachhman is said in his grief to have smeared his body with ashes and to have accom- 
panied him, Hence he was called KhaJei^ and his admiring followers bear that name 
to this date. In the days of Shdjd,-ud-Dowla one Mahant Dyi\ Rdm is said to have 
come from Chitrkot, and having obtained 4 bighas of land, he thereon established the 
Akh^rd, and this order of Bairagis now includes 180 persons, of whom 50 are resident 
and 100 itinerant. This establishment has some small assignments of land in this, 
and in the Gondah district. R^m Dds the present Mahant is seventh in succession 
from the local founder of the order, 

The Mahdnirhdni Mahant Parsotam D^s came to Ajddhia from Kotah 
Bundi in the days of Shdja-ud-Dowld, and built a temple at Ajddliia. Dial Das 
the presenf incumbent is the sixth in succession. He has 25 disciples, the great 
majority of whom are* itinerant mendicants. The words Mahdnirbdni imply the 
worshipping of God without asking for favors, either in this world or the next. 

llie Santoki 56 c^.— Mahant Rati Ram arrived at Ajddhi^ from Jaipdr in the days 
of Mansdr Ali Khan, and building a temple founded this order. Two or three gener- 
ations after him the temple was abandoned by his followers, and one Nidhi Singh, 
an influential distiller in the days of the Ex-king, took the site and buill thereon 
anotlier temple. After this Khushal Das of this order returned to Ajudhifi and 
lived and died under an Asok tree, and there the temple which is now used by the 
fraternity, was built by Rdmkishn Dds the present liead of the community. ' 

The I(irdlambhi sect — Siri Birmal DAs is said to have come from Kotah in the 
time of Shuja-ud-Dowla, and to have built a temple in Ajddhia, but it was afterwards 
abandoned. Subsequently Narsing D^s of this order erected a new building near 
Darshan Sing’s temple. The present Head of the fraternity is Ram Sevak, and they 
are dependent solely on the offerings of pilgrims. 

The Jawnutetlutn and othev temples,— It is locally afiSrmed that at the Mahome* 
'dan, conquest there were three important Hindd shrines, with but few devotees 
rtta^hed, at Aj6dhi6, which, was then litUe other than a wilderness. These were 

( 21 ) 

the Janmasthdn,” the Sargadwdr mandir” also known as " Earn Darbar’^ and the 
“ Taretd-ke-Thdkhr.” 

On the first of these the Emperor Bdbar built the mosque which still bears his 
name, A. D. 1528. On the second Aurangzeb did the same A. D. 1C58-1707 ; and on the 
third that sovereign^ or his predecessor, built a mosque, according to the well known 
Mahomedan principle of enforcing their religion on all those whom they conquered. 

The Janmasthan marks the place where Biim Chandr was born. The Sargadwfir 
is the gate through which he passed into Paradise, possibly the spot where his body 
was burned. The Tareta-ke-Thakhr was famous as the place where Rama peformod a 
great sacrifice, and which he commemorated by setting up there images of himself 
and Slta. 

Bdhar's Tnosque . — According to Leyden's memoirs of Bdbar that Emperor encamped 
at the junction of the Serwd and Gogrd rivers two or three kos east from Ajddhid, on 
the 28th March 1528, and there he halted 7 or 8 days settling the surrounding 
country. A well known hunting ground is spoken of in that work, 7 or 8 kos 
above Oudh, on the banks of the Surju. It is remarkable that in all the copies of 
Bihar’s life now known, the pages that relate to his doings at Ajiidhifi are wanting. 
In two places in the Babari mosque the year in which it was built 935 H., correspond- 
ing with 1528 A. D. is carved in stone, along with inscriptions dedicated to the glory 
of that Emperor. 

If Ajfidhiit was then little other than a wild, it must at least have possessed a fine 
temple in the Janmasthan ; for many of its columns arc still in existence and in 
good preservation, having been used by the Musalmdns in the construction of the 
Babari Mosque. These are of strong close-grained dark slate-colored or black stone, 
called by the natives Kasoti (literally touch-stone,) and carved with different devices. 
To my thinking these strongly resemble Budhist pillars that I have seen at Benares 
and olsewliere. They are from seven to eight feet long, square at the base, ceatro 
and capital, and round or octagonal intermediately. 

Hindu and Mmalnidn dljfemices , — ^The Janmasthan is within a few hundred 
paces of the Hanuman O^rhi. In 1855 when a great rupture took place between the 
Hindds and Mahomodans, the former occupied the Hanumdn Garhi in force, while the 
Musalmans took possession of the Janmasthdn. Tim Mahomedans on that occasion 
actually charged up the steps of the Hanuman Garhi, but were driven back with con- 
siderable loss. Tlie Hiiulus then followed up this success, and at the third attempt, 
took the Janmasthdn, at the gate of which 75 Mahomedans are buried in the 
“ Martyrs’* grave” (Ganj -shahid.) Several of the King s Regiments were looking on 
all the time, but their orders were not to interfere. It is said that up to that time 
the Hindds and Mahomedans alike used to worship in the mosciue-temple. Since 
British rule a railing has been put up to prevent disputes, within which in the 
mosqqe the Mahomedans pray, while outside the fence the Hindds have raised a 
platform on which they make their offerings. 

The two other old mosques to which allusion has been made (known by the com- 
mon people b^ the name of Nourang Shdhj by whom they mean Aurangzeb,) are no^ 
mere picturesque niins. Nothing has been done by the Hindds to restore the old 
Mandir of** Rdm Darbdr.’* The " Taret4-ke-Thdkdr” was reproduced near the old njiii 
by the Rdja of KlUu, whose estate is said to be in the Punjab, more than two centu- 
ries ago ; and it was improved upon afterwards by HillS Bdi, Marathin, who also 
built the adjoining ghat A. D. 178^ She was the widow of Jaswant lUi^ Ho&ar, of ‘ 
Indoio, ftohj which family Rs. 231 are etill annually received at this shrine.. v:|'; 

The received opiO^nf'^ 

a hranch of whovesCai^vtho fate 

■ ( ) ■- ^ 

dox followers of Gautama in the 8th and 9th centuries, by conforming somewhat to 
•Brahminism, and even helping to p^ecute the Bfldhista Hence many Jains ao* 
knowledge Shiva, and in the south are even divided into castes. The precise, jperiod 
of the schism is unknown. The Jains recognize 24 Jenas or tirthankaras or hierarchs, 
and in this they resemble the Hindds. 

Adindth , — The first of these and founder of the sect was Adindth also called 
Rishabhdnath, also Adisarji-dwal and Rikdbdeo. This Jena was thirteen times incar- 
nate, the last time in the family of Ikshawaka of tho Solar race, when he was born at 
Ajddhid, his fathers name being Nabi and bis mother s Jliru. He died at Mount 
Abu in Gujrat where the oldest temple is dedicated to him," A. D. 9G0. The Jains 
according to Ward (recent edition) allege that they formerly exten ded over the whole 
of Aryu and Bharata-Khunda, and that all those who had any just pretensions to 
be of Kshatriya descent, were of their sect, and on the saino authority Bishabha, 
another name for the same heirarch, was the head of this Atheistical sect. 

Ajitndth, &g. — Ajitn^th the second of those Jcntls, Abhinandananath the fourth 
and Samatinath the fifth, were all born at Ajudliiu, and died at Parisnath. Chun- 
draprobhd the eighth wjis born at Ohandripur, the local name of Sc'iliot Mahet (Baraich,) 
and died also at Parisnath, as did Annntanatli the fourteenth, born at AjiidhiA 
Temples now exist at Ajudhid dedicated to the five hierarchs born there, of which 
details will be given further on. 

It is clear then that Ajudhia had much to do with the propagation of the Jain- 
Atheist faith, and the Chinese travellers found that faith or its sister Budhism, 
rampant there in the Cth century, as it was across tho river at Sahet Mahet, the 
great Oudh-Bddhist capital. 

Pre-Mahomedan Jain temple , — A great Jain Mandir is known to have existed 
at Ajddhid when the Mahomedans conquered Oiidh, on tlie spot now known as Shah 
Juran’s tild or mound, (see the account of Adindth’s temple further on.) 

Antique Jain images . — I have now in my possession two elaborately carved 
stone images discovered some years ago on the banks of the Gointi, in the village 
of Patna in Pargana Aldcmau of this district, of which General Cunningham, to 
whom I sent a photograph, writes as follows : — “ I beg also to thank you for tho 
photograph of tho two statues, which is particularly valuable to me from the very 
perfect state of preservation of tho figures. They are not however, Budhist, but Jain 
figures. No Bddhist figures are ever represented as naked, and it is only the statues 
of the Digambar sect of Jains that arc so represented. Both figures represent the 
same hierarch mz., Adinathy who is the first of the 24 TirtlianharsM tho Jains. 
Adinath is known by the wheel on the pedestal, which is represented end on, instead 
of sideways as in many other sculptures.” 

These statues were discovered under ground by some Bairdgis about the year 
l65(f A. D., who had their discovery widely proclaimed by beat of drum, setting forth 
that Jagarnath had appeared to them in a dream and had indicated to them where 
he lay concealed in tho ground, and that if he were released and set up in the neigh- 
bourhood, the necessity for long pilgrimages to the distant Puri would cease. They 
found him at the spot indicated, had set him up as "ordered, and now proclaimed the 
fact for the benefit of pilgrims at large. For one season the imposition took, and 
thousands of Hindfia made their offerings at the new shrine, and great Was their 

^sjpust when, the fact was afterwards revealed by a learned Pandit that the images 
to the Bhar? who^ according to the holy man in question, were in the hatjit 
IfeO such images m these. We have in this remark a stong 
(hat the Jam-Bddh^U. Thereaft^ the imaged lay ukhecd^ ! 

ih a remoy^ Without qpj^tion,,J)y Jttir, 


( 23 ) 

Modern The Jains of the present day are a rich and influential but not 

numerous sect ; for their numbers do not exceed 8,00,000, Seth Lachhmichand, and 
Pemchand Rai Chand were of this order. The Jains spend great sums in temples 
and pilgrimages to their five great shrines, m 2 ?., Parisnath 
Bwftich. ^ (Bengal) Abu (Rajputini) Chandgiri* (Himalayas) Gimar 
(Oujerat) and Satrunjaya (Kattiawar.) 

Sir A. Bumes wrote of the Jains that they are a gloomy tribe of Atheistical 
ascetics, not unlike the Bddhists, who deny the authority of God and a future state ; 
they believe that as the* trees in an uninhabited forest spring up without cultivation, 

BO the universe is self* existent ; that the world, in short, is produced, as the spider 
produces his web, out of its own bowels ; and tliat as the banks of a river fall of 
themselves, so there is no Supreme destroyer. They also deny the Divine Authority 
of the Vedas, and worship tho great flindd Gods as minor deities. 

Modern temples. — I have already said that there are now several Jain temples 
at Ajddhil They were all built about 150 years ago to mark the birthplaces of che 
five hierarchs who are said to have been born there, by one Kaseri Sing a treasurer 
or servant of Nawab Shuja-ud-Dowla, whose great influence with that ruler obtained 
for him permission to build these temples of idolatry even amongst the very mosques 
and tombs of the faithful. I now give some brief notes on each Mandir. 

No. 1. To Adindih the first heirarch. This is situated in the Moral Toldh near 
the Sargadwdr, on a mound on which there are many tombs and a mosque. It is half 
way up tho mound, and the key is kept by a Musalman who lives close by.* 

No. 2. To Ajltrdth the second Autdr. This is situated w^est of the Itaura 
tank and contains an idol and inscription. It was built in 1781 S., and is surround- 
ed on all sides by cultivation. 

No. 3. To Ahhinandandndih the fourth Autar, situated near tho Serai. It con- 
tains an inscription. 

No. 4. To SomantJuindth, the fifth Autar Avithin the limits of Rfimkot. ‘ In tliis 
teinplc there are two idols of Parisnath, one of the two most popular incarnations, 
and three of Nemnath. There is an inscription setting forth that the temple was 
built in 1781 S. 

No. 5. To Ananthanath the fourteenth Autar, whose foot print it enshrines. 

It contains an inscription, as in the last case, and is situated on the banks of Goldghfit 
nala, on the high bank of the (jk)gra, a most picturesque site. 

Brahmin attendant,— AW these five temples are superintended by a Gaur 
Brahmin named Ajudliia Pande, who has not yet he says joined the Jain sect, ^ 
although his son has. Ho justifies his position by saying he is an alien here, and 
would do anything for a livelihood. He is paid by the representatives of a Serawak 
community in Lucknow, Ganeshi Lai and Gh^si L41. Serawak is tho ordinary 
lay name for a Jain, and means literally a hearer. It'seems that the Jains select 
Gaur Brahmins as spiritual guides, because they do not eat fish or flesh or drink wine. 

But in addition to these five Digambari temples there is a sixth or Sitambari 
Mandir, dedicated, also to the first Autar Ajitndthy by tldecliand tJswal of Jaipfir, and 
in the keeping of his priest, Khushalchand Jatti. It is situated in the Alamganj Mo- 
halla and was buUt in 1881 S. It contains images of Ajitndth in pink stone, of 

V * KoTB.--Thd Musolmin tradition is that one Mokhdtim Shah Jumn Gbori (whoso descendant! still hold 

in AjticIhU and take the fbet at the Join Shnne) came to Oudh at the end of the twelfth centui^, 
I^Bultan Shahah'hd'din Qhori, ai^ rid ^Judhia of ddinath, who wiw then a tortnent to the people, for which 
wrice landa wato to hita On which .he founded the present Buxaria tola. we know that a twpflp* ' 

V pie was to .hdiaath ait Ahu, nearlj yeOn before that ; ao tliat what Shah. JPutan no doubt did ^ 

. .wai Ui the that we also know Ajddhii, eapred to the a&Qto Adihath, and to bhud. ^ 

which gave toM uame by whuh ilia ithl'hjliowtt w?., Shah 

( 24 ) 

tho five shrines, (panch-tiritha) in metal, besides holy footprints, &c., and it com- 
memorates 19 events connected with the conception, birth, and relinquishment of 
the world of the five Autars born at Ajddhid. 

The Digambari sect (to which the five Ajfidhid hierarchs belonged) worship only 
naked images, or according to the etymology of the word, those who are clothed in 
space alone. The Sitambari sect again worship covered figures, or etymologically 
those who are clothed in garments. 

T/ie Maniparhat . — The Brahininical tradition about thi^ mound, the ancient 
name of which was Chartr-ban, is that wh^n Rama was waging his Ceylon war Lachh- 
man was wounded by a poisoned arrow. Sugriva the monkey God was despatched 
through the air to fetch an antidote from tho Himalayas. Unfortunately the messenger 
forgot the name of tho herb, but to make amends ho carried off a whole mountain 
in the palm of his hand, feeling certain that the antidote would be there. As he 
returned bearing the mountain over Ajudhifl in mid-air a clod fell therefrom, which 
is no other than the Maniparbat. Mr. Hunter I think relates a similar tradition 
amongst tho Santhals. It is from this legend that the monkey god was always repre- 
sented as bearing a rock in his hand. 

General Cunningham describes the Maniparbat as an artificial mound 05 feet in 
height covered with broken bricks and blocks of kankar. The common people in 
these days call tho mount the Orajhar or Jhaiiajh^lr, both expressions indicating 
basket-shakings, and they say that the mound was raised by tho accumulated basket 
shakings of tho laborers who built Ramkot. The same tale is told of the similar 
mounds at Sahet Mahet, at Benares and at other places. This mound General 
Cunningham points out as tho Stupa of Asoka 200 feet in height, built on the spot where 
Budha preached the law during his six years residence here. That officer infers that 
the earthen or lower part of the mound may belong to tho earlier ages of Budhism, 
and that the masonry part was added by Asoka. 

Raja Nanda Bardhan of Magadha . — I have repeatedly been assured by 
Maha Rdja M^n Sing that within the present century an inscription was discovered 
buried in this mound, which ascribed its construction to Rajd Nanda Bardhan of the 
Magadha dynasty, who once held sway here.* Tho M^hd- RAjfi further stated that 
the inscription was taken to Lucknow in Nasir-ud-din Haider's time, and that there 
was a copy of it at Shahganj, but all my attempts to trace either the original or copy 
have failed.*f It is however noteworthy that the M^hil Raja’s information whether 
reliable or not, is confirmatory of the inference which General Cunningham had drawn 
from independent data. 

*Note . — This man is accredited with tho suppression of Brahminisin in AjudhiA, and with the establish- 
inent of tho non-castc system adopted by society generally, when tho population at large wero denominated 

, Pfinsep mentions this ruler as Nandirardhana, (a Takshac, according to Tod,) of tlio Sunaka dynasty, 
kings of Bharatkhanda, part of the Magadha Empire. 

We may have here some clue as to who the Bhars wore ; people begotten by the conquering soldiers of 
Bardhan from Gya, who wore probably of tho aboriginal type of that country, as well as those people of 
this provinoe who accepted tho conqueror’s yoke, without toking themselves off to other countries, as many 
no doubt did ; and in the RdiptSU of eastern Ondh in these days, wo may thus hare the oflfepring of a 
mixed people, the blood of whicn may have been improved by subsequent intermarriage with those, who, 
for the sake of their faith, went elsewnero, and whose descendants in rare instances, so far ns the Fyzabad 
cUstriot is concerned, returned and settled in Oudh, after the Mahomodan conauest. 

This may lielp to account for the strange fa^ that none of the Chhatn clans with which I am familiar, 
can carry their pedigrees back beyond the Mahoma^n period. Of most of these Clans it can with peifect 
truth be said that they are indigenous and local, some of them going so far eveii as to admit a Bhar origin. 

In all. our reeearehes there is nothing more marked than the nomorous traditions that connect Ondb 
<mth the east on the one hand, and with the south south west on the other. The explanation of it may 
Tperiiaps ho that it was from i(|d^bi4 th^ IMsna convey^ the doctrines of the Tedas to Ceylon and the 
iouth^ it waa from Gya that the waye .of^^<^gi> 08 ing Budhist superiority came, wjtli Napda Bardhan | and 
a was from Ujain in the south west that yiroma came to restore the Brahmin glories of AJddhii, The 
Oudh traditions of the one Mriod take ibe foanders of the Budhii^ and Jain faiths from iCoi^ towards 
Gya Imd Barisnath ; while |bo those of the period, half the dlans aiid tribes pf the province rtiU trace 
the^xirigintosiwhplacosasyjainrMaaglpatfeand^C^^ - ^ / ‘ 

Ito information has since been oowborated by thelea«nedmdit tTlpAilat of AjddhiiLt^, 
me that he made a tvansiMion of , the inscription bctiyeen BO and 40. Vearii kao. , He tod hha Mi 
; ban^/pow describe the Contents, ^ 

( 26 ) 

S&gnvd dud Kabiv p(i>*bai.-“Genej*al Cunningham thinks he identified two 
other mounds also, Sdgrivaparbat, which he describes as a mound 10 feet high, and 
which he iinagines is the great monastery of Hwen Thsang (500x300) which is south 
east of, and within 500 feet of Maniparbat ; and 500 feet duo south, he identified 
another mound, which is 28 feet high, and which he thinks is the Kabirparbat, or 
the Stupa described by Hwen Thsang as containing the hair and nails of Budha. 

On this point I have the following remark to make. General Cunningham 
admits a connexion between the Maniparbat and the Ramkot. Now two of the largest 
bastions or mounds of Ramkot are called to this day Sugriva, and Kabir tila or par- 
bat : so that it would seem that their conneefion with Ramkot is more direct, and they 
appear to be entitled to dispute identity with the spots indicated by the General, to 
which no traditions locally attach. 

The tombs of the patriarchs . — Adjoining the Maniparbat are two tombs of which 
General Cunningham writes that they are attributed to Sis paighambar and Ayub 
paighambar, or the prophets Seth and Job. The first is 17 feet long and the other 
12 feet. Those tombs are mentioned by Abul Fazl who says, * near this are two 
sepulchral monuments, one seven and the other six cubits in length. The vulgar 
pretend that they are the tombs of Seth and Job, and they relate wonderful stories 
of them. This account shows that since the time of Akbar the tomb of Seth must 
have increased in length from 7 cubits or lOJ feet, to 17 feet, through the fre(|uent 
repairs of pious Musalmdns.’* These tombs are also mentioned at a later date, in 
the Ard,ish Mahfil. To these tombs Colonel Wilford adds that of Noah, which is still 
jjointed out near the police station. The Coloncrs account is as follows, “ close to 
Ajudhid or Oudh, on the banks of the Gogra, they show the tomb of Noah, and those 
of Ayub, and Shis or Shish (Job and Seth.) According to the account of the venerable 
Hiirvesh who watches over the tomb of.Nuh, it was built by Alexander the Great, or 
Sikandar Rdmi. I sent lately (A. D. 1799.) a learned Hindu, to make enquiries 
about this holy place ; from the Musalmans he could get no further light ; but the 
Brahmins informed him, that where Nuh's tomb stands now, there was formerly a 
place of worship dedicated to Ganesha, and close to it are the remains of a baoli or 
walled well, which is called in the Purdnas Ganaput ktind. The tombs of Job and Seth 
are near to each other ; and about one bow-shot and a half from Null’s tomb ; be- 
tween them are two small hillocks, called Suma-giri or the mountains of the moon : 
according to them these tombs are not above 400 years old ; and owe their origin to 
throe men called Nuh, Ayub, and Shis, who fell there fighting against the Hindds, 
These were of course considered as shahids or martyrs ; but the priests who officiate 
there, in or^cr to increase the veneration of the superstitious and unthinking crowd, 
gave out that these tombs were really those of Noah, Job and Seth of old. The tomb 
of Nuh is not mentioned in the Ain-i-akbari, only those of Job and Seth.” 

On these quotations, I have only to add that the distance between the tombs is 
greater than stated, being nearly a mile as the crow flies, while it is not the tomb 
of Nuh, but those of the other two men mentioned, that are close to the Ganesha 


6. Darshun Singh's temple . — ^This temple now more generally known as Mdn 
Singh’s, was built 25 years ago by the former Rdja, and there is nothing more artistic 
in that line in modem Oudh. It is dedicated to Mahddeo, and is of finely cut 
Chunar stone, most of the figures and ornaments having been prepared at and 
brought from Mirzdptir. The idol is a fine bloodstone from the Narbada, which cost 
250 Rs, there. The marble images are from Jaipfir. The splendidly toned large bell 
was cast here, from a model which wa# myured on its way from Nepil ; it is a credit 
to local art 

( « ) ■ 

The temple cost more that two lacs of Rs., and it redduAdfl lO the tasW 

of the designer, and to the credit of HedAyet All, mason, an<t BahfiSfir carpefite#, both ' 
still living, under whoge able su;^ervigiot it was constructed. 

The Baku Begants Mansolewifn , — It was arranged by treaty between the 
British Government, the Bahu Begam, and the NawAb of Oudh, that 3 laes of sicca 
Es. of her riches, were to be set apart for the erection by her confidential servant Da- 
rab All Kb An, of her tomb, and that the revenue of villages to the aggregate amount 
of sicca Rs. 10,000 per annum, were to be assigned for its support. 

The Begam died on the 27th of January 1816. DarAb AU laid the foundations 
and built the plinth, when he also died, on the 10th of August 18l8. 

Pa,njih All, vakil, and MirzA Haider, the son of an adopted daughter then carried 
on the work through a series of years when, with the completion of the brick work, 
the grant of 3 lacs came to an end, and the beautiful edifice remained unfinished till 
after the mutiny of 1857. 

In Ghazi-ud-dm Haider's time, the assignment of revenue was given up, on his 
placing in the hands of the British Government Rs. 1,66,606-10-8, the interest of 
which at the then prevailing rate of 6 per cent, was to yield the equivalent annual 
sum of Rs. 10,000, for the support of the tomb. This sum seems to have been regu- 
larly received and disbursed by the native management, until the year 1839. Coui- 
plaints were then made to the Resident of irregularity in the disbursements, and this 
led to the organization of tlie Wasika Department in 1840. 

Under this new management a considerable surplus was soon accumulated, and 
in 1853-54 a proposition was submitted to and sanctioned by Government, under 
which Rs, 41,727-11-3, out of a then existing surplus of Rs. 52,262-11-6, was to be 
spent in finishing the tomb, the balance being carried to the credit of Government. 
The woik was being carried on under the supervision of Captain A. P. Orr, when the 
mutiny occurred, and the unexpended balance of the sanctioned estimate, or about 
Rs. 6,000, was plundered. The tomb was finally completed by the Department of 
Public Works, after the re-occupation of the Province. 

In sanctioning the proposition mentioned in the penultimate para, in January 
1854, the Government remarked that it was a great loser by the arrangement it had 
entered into under which it was to allow 6 per cent, on the money funded by Ghazi- 
ud-din Haider, and looking to the fact that in late years the whole grant had not 
been expended, it resolved on reducing the interest on the loan from 6 to 4 per cent, 
the then current rate. At this rate the annual income of the endowment was reduced 
from sicca Rs, 10,000 to Company's Rs. 6,606-10-8. 

This latter sum was still further reduced in January 1855, to <]Jompany’s 
Rs. 5,833-5-4 ; but it was again raised to that sum, under the orders of September 
1859, at which it has since been continued. 

Rupees 1000 per annum are reserved by Government for the repairs, through itA 
own officers, of the building, and the remainder of the annual allowance is spent by 
the native managers in religious ceremonies, periodi^ illuminations, &c. 

Had the arrangements entered into with the Begam been throughout maintained 
instead of a considerable dimunition, there would have been a large increase in the 
sum now annually available, for the suitable keeping up of the finest building of the 
! kind in Oudh, 


: ^ \0f^luding will now sum up theW iretiiafki^ by obAerylfig tl^t thi§rd 

We ifte foSowing impot^W step^ng-stdnda to jlpAtory in tho Fy^bid distrieti ifi thd 
imajjos, v ^ ? 

( « ). 

(I) . Coins , — In January 1866, was discovered in Ajfidhii, a vessel containing 656 
old copper coins of the Bactrian King Om^, or Hiereni Kadphises, who lived at the 
beginning of our Era; and of Kamskiy also a Bactrian, of the first century A. D. We 
have it on the authority of Prinsep that Kanaksen of the Solar race, left Oudh A. D., 
14i, and became the founder of the Valabhi dynasty, Gajrdth, and this authority ha- 
zards the question whether Kanaksen, Kanirki, and Kaniska, are not all one and the 
sarao. As there were no more modern coins amongst these, the presumption is that 
they had been buried since the earlier centuries of our Era. 

(II) . Images, — ^We Jiave the Jain-Bddhist images first discovered in Pargana 
Aldemau about the year 1850 A. D., which .must be very many centuries old, and 
which are mentioned at page 22 of this paper. 

(III) . Inscriptions, — But wo have also authentic aids to History in the land 
grants that have at different times been recovered or produced. These are of the 
reigns of Nanda Bardhan (at the beginning of, or before our Era;) of Jaichand 
(A. D. 1187 ;) and of Akbar, Jehangir, Shdhjehdn, Alamgir, and their successors. A 
collection of those would be highly interesting ; that of Akbar bears a seal not larger 
than a shilling, with the simple words, Allah -o- Akbar. ” 

(IV.) these we have; (1), the enshrined tomb of Syad Masud 

Bch^lni, in the village of Bchawiin, Pargana Birhar, a reputed follower of Syad Sa- 
Idr, A. D. 1030 ; (2), the tomb at Ajudhi^, of Makhddm Shdh Juran-Ghori, a lieutenant 
it is alleged, of Sliahdb-dd-dm Ghori, the conqueror of Dehli and Kanauj, A. D. 1192-4; 
(3), the tomb at Ajddhia of the Shark! period, perhaps of Khwdjd Jahdn, the founder 
of the Jaunpur dynasty himself, who died A. D. 1309; (4), the enshrined tomb of 
Makhdum Ashraf at Kachhoclid, the author of the Latdif-i-Ashrafi, and the cotem- 
porary of Ibrdhxm Shdh of the Shark! dynasty, A. D. 1401-40 ; (5), Bdbar’s mosque 
with stone inscriptions in Ajddhid, date A. D. 1528, and stone columns of infinitely 
greater antiquity ; (G), the stone-faced fort of Salemgarh on the Gfimtf, a stronghold 
of Salem Shdh, A. D. 1545-53 ; (7), the fort and bridge with stone inscriptions, at Ak- 
barpdr, a resting place of the Emperor Akbar, A. D. 1556-86; (8), the mosques of 
Alamgir ( Aurangzeb ) at Ajudhia, A. D. 1658-1707 ; (9), and lastly, the more modern 
buildings of Fyzabad, such as the Dilkdshd, the fort, &c., mostly of Shfija-dd-dowldh’s 
time, A. D. 1753-75. 


Offi^ciaiing Commissioner, 

Fyzabady October^ 1870. 



( i ) 

;{ f > 

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APPENDIX A. — (Continued.) 

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APPENDIX A. — (Continued.) 

IM* 0^ S4m Sa- j Sam Sarandas, ... j 60 i 2 j 0 0 S j Place of antiquity. ... | X)o. 

' ‘ 5 , 

{ «? I 




The holy city of AjfidhW, of saving virtues and ancient renown, was built they 
say by Brahm^, and gived to his eldest son for an earthly dwelling-place* The earth 
being but transitory , Brahm^ laid the foundation in his own discus^ the Sddarsan Chak* 
rit which still gives its shape to the city. On this was reared a stately capital for the 
son of God, and it whs presented to him complete, fitted, declare the chronicles, with 
shrines, palaces, roads, markets, gardens, and fruit trees, glittering with jewels, and 
resounding with the melody of birds. Its men and women were holy, as befitted the 
subjects of a Divine King, and their righteousness was rewarded by incalculable wealth ' 
in elephants and oxen, horses and chariots. Its boundaries were fixed by the Saiju, and 
the Tons, and from Lachman Kfind a jojan to the east tgad to the west. 

In this city was supposed to reside a sanctifying virtue of extraordinary efficacy. 
When a man merely projected a pilgrimage to it, he purchased the salvation of his 
ancestors. Every step he took on his way had the efficacy of an aswd-medh^ jdg. • 
To him, who gave a pilgrim the road expenses of the journey, was assigned a passport 
to heaven with all his sons and grandsons. To him, who provided a weary pilgrim 
with conveyance, was promised a passage to the divine abodes in the chariots of the 
Gods. He, who fed a hungry pilgrim, reaped the benefit of many oblations at GyS. 
and ablutions at PrAg, and earned for his forefathers an eternity of happiness. He 
who anointed a pilgrira^s feet with oil, would obtain his desires in both worlds. The 
mere sight of Ajfidhia absolved from all trivial sin. To journey to it measuring the 
way with the outstretched body was a penance, which atoned for the most heinous 
crime. The water of the Sarjfi washed away sin; obeisance to it removed all worldly 
trouble. He who lived in AjudhiA, redeemed his soul from the pains of transmigration ; 
a residence of a night rehabilitated a man, who had been degraded in his caste. Seven 
holy places in India made up the body of Vishnfi, and the boastful priests aver that 
Ajudhid was the head. 

Similarly sacred was the origin of the Sarju. In the beginning of creation a 
lotas sprang from the navel of Narayand, which gave birth to Brahmd. Then Brah- 
md worshipped Narayand, and when he had worshipped for a thousand years, 
Vishnfi, gratified by such devotion, blessed him, with tears of affection in his eyes. 
The adoring Brahmd caught the dropping tears in the hollow of his palm, and stored * 
them in a wooden vessel, which he kept next his heart. Ages after, Manti, the first of^ 
the solar race, was king in Ajudhid. His son Iksdwdkd was so studious in bis 
devotions, that the great Brahmd, pleased, told him to ask a boon. Iksawdkd asked 
for a holy river, and Brahma gave him the treasured tears of Narayand, which thence- 
forward flowed as the Sarjd. The bank of this river, nominally for a distance of 818 
yards, bears the name of Swargdwdr, the gate of Heaven. The Purdns affirm it to be 
the holiest spot on earth. He who dies there passes straight to heaven, receiving 
the pardon of the sins of a thousand births. Even Mahomedans, even animals, bivda 
and insects, obtain there in deeth salvation in an eternal life with the Gods. 

In the gate of heaven are seven Hars^' or representations of Yishnd, QdpiHar, 
Chandrd Har^ Chakrd Har, Yishnd Har, Dharmd Har, Belmd Har and Fan Her. 

C9handr&. Her weai fixed by Yishnd in honont of moOn, wbo^ bad at that 

Wbp geWWBrteStf 

( -ii. ) ■ - ^ '■ ■: ' " ■ 

bathes^ and then visits Chandrd Har^ has his capital sins washed away and is secured 
of heaven. The season of greatest efficacy is the full moon of Jeth. 

The only other important Har is the Dharma Har, but between the two Ears is 
Nageshwar, the origin of which was this : — Kush, the son of Rdmchandr was bathing 
in the river. Kamudti, the sister of Sakun, a serpent that inhabited the Sarju, became 
enamoured of the handsome Kush, and stole his bracelet for a love-token. The 
bracelet was one on which Kush set great value, and when he discovered his loss on 
reaching the shore, in his rage he fitted to his bow an arrow of fire wherewith to dry 
up the waters of the ofiending Sarjfi. The Sarjfi fell at his feet for mercy, and 
denounced the real culprit. Then Kush muttered an incantation over the arrow, and 
discharged it against the serpent. The serpent with his sister immediately appeared 
and restored the ornament, praying for forgiveness. The serpent was a worshipper of 
Mahddco, and the not-forgetful God appeared at this moment to shield his servant. 
He promised Kush he would grant any boon he asked if the serpent were forgiven, 
and it was accordingly ordained at the wish of the patriotic Kush, that the presence 
of Mahadco should henceforth reside on the spot, and that whoever should bathe at 
Swargdwcdr and worship at Ndgeshwar, should be satisfied in every wish, and enjoy 
the fruits of an efficacious pilgrimage. 

Dharma Har to the South-east of Nfigcshwar takes its name from the God of 
Virtue and Justice. Dharmd composed here a hymn of such transcendent grandeur 
that Mahadeo decreed that the place should stand consecrated in their joint names, 
and that whoever should after bathing in the Sarjil, read there this hymn, would be 
blessed with riches and the esteem of his fellows. The holy day at Dharm liar is the 
11th of the lunar half of the month Asarh. 

Opposite Dharm Har on the river is Janki Ghat, where they bathe on the 3rd of 
the lunar half of Sdwau, and immediately below this is the llam-Ghat, where the 
Swargdwar ends ; all south of this is called Ajudhia Pith. 

Behind Ram Gh^lt is Ram Sabha, where Ram Chandr is believed to sit enthroned, 
surrounded by his brothers. South of it is the Dhawan Kiiml, in which he who 
bathes on the 9th of the lunar half of Chait, is freed from all pride. On one occasion 
Kundani, a saint, had bathed in this pool and was engaged in prayer, when the wind 
suddenly blew his deer-skin mat into the water. To the astonishment of every one 
the deer-skin at once assumed the form of a glorious deity, seated on a magnificent 
throne, and to Rdm Chandr the deity gave this history. He was at first a Vaisya, obdu- 
rate in his pride of riches and perversely disobedient to the Veds, But one day he un- 
intentionally did a good action. He sprinkled water on a Tulslii shrub. For this he 
was made a deer, and his skin was given to a pilgrim bound for Ajudbid, and now the 
skin on touching the water of the sacred pond had changed into this heavenly body. 
The glorified shape prayed for admittance to heaven, and straightway passed in a 
chariot into the regions of Rdm Chandr, whence there is no rcturning.^^ It is 

in this pond, that Raghundthji, as the pandits say, performs with the tooth brush.^^ 

• • 

In the heart of the city lies the great Rdm Kot, the fort of Rdm, with its gates 
guarded by the immortal monkeys who accompanied him on his return from Ceylon. 
On its western side is the Janara Bhdm or Janam Asthdn, the birth place of the 
hero. To visit this on the Rdm-Nomi, that sacred ninth which falls in Chait, 
delivers the pilgrim from all the pains of the transmigration of souls. The virtue of 
this act is as if the pilgrim had given 1,000 cows, or performed a thousand times the 
sacrifices of the Rdj Sfiiji or Agin-hotra, ‘‘ but the fool, who eatv on that day 
shall go to hell, where all the vicious are thrown into boiling oiP^ They say there 
was once a band of five thieves, who had been banished from their native country for 
highway robbery, adultery, murder of cows and other heinous crime. These five men 
; spent their days alternately in robbing pilgrims and .in riotous living. A party, of 
, , pilgrims from Delhi passed through the forest in which was the den of these robbers, ^ 

( iii ) 

and the robbers joined them in the guise of travellers from a far country. But as 
they neared Ajddhi^ the guardian-angels of the holy city, who are stationed to 
prevent the entrance of the deliberately wicked, took visible shape and began to 
beat the robbers with their clubs. A sage who lived near by, Asit Muni, hearing their 
cries, interfered in their behalf, They were released at his intercession, and in grati- 
tude they obeyed their preserver's command to complete the pilgrimage to Ajddhifi, 
and secure salvation by performing the prescribed ritual* As they entered the city 
Ajddhid appeared as a beautiful goddess, clad in white robes, and attended by her 
maidens. The men trembled with, fear. On a sudden their sins arose before them, 
shrouded in the blue gaibli of mourning, of horrible countenances, red-haired, blear- 
eyed, mis-shapen, their iron ornaments clanking like chains. Then the goddess beat 
the sins, and they fled out of the city and took refuge under a pi pal tree, aud the 
thieves went on rejoicing and bathed at Swargdwdr, and kept the fast of Nomi, and 
worshipped at the birthplace of R^ma, and they were purified from sin, and Yama 
called Chitra Gupta the recorder, and their sins were blotted out from the Book of the 
Judge of the dead. Meanwhile the messengers of Yama traversing tlic earth fell in 
with the sins of the robbers, standing crying under the pipal tree. On these the mes^ 
sengers took compassion, and prayed of Yama that the sins might be re-united to the 
robbers. But Yama said ^hat the advantages of bathing at Ajudliia were irrevocable, 
and retired to meditate on the banks of the Sarju. Ajfidhia was pleased with the 
wisdom of Yama, and the place of his meditation she named Jama Asthal, and 
appointed a holy day in his honour on the 2nd of Katik, and the sins were destroyed 
under the pipal tree. 

Just beside the birth-place of Rama is the Kitchen" of Jdnki-ji. It is in shape 
like the ordinary Indian Chtilha," and is supposed to be always filled with food. 
The sight of it satisfies every nant; a daily visit keeps the house supplied with food. 
Close to this is the house of Kaikayi, where Bharat-ji was born. On the other side is 
that of Soraitra, where Lachhman and Satrohan were born. South-east of this is the 
Sitd Kdp, the waters of which are said to give intelligence to the drinker. 

Below Hanwant Kuud is Sobarna Khar, called Sona-Kliar by the people, from a 
shower of gold which happened in this wise. There was once a very learned sage named 
Visliwa Mitra, to whose door came one day another sage called Dilrbasd. Dtirbdsa 
said, ''I am very hungry, give me some food." Biswa Mitra immediately brought him a 
hot porringer of rice and milk, on which Dfirbasd asked him courteously to hold it till 
he came back from bathing. Having said this Durbfisa went home, and Vishwa 
Mitra without feeling any passion, stood firm like a pole, with the vessel in his hand, 
for a thousand years. At the end of this period Diirbks^ returned, found him very 
happy, ate the rice and milk, was highly satisfied, and went home praising him greatly. 
( “ He who, hears this story, shall be freed from all his sins, and get salvation. There 
is no doubt of this.") One Kauto Muni had been in Vishwa Mitra's service all this 
time, and Vishwa Mitra taught him fourteen sciences. Kauto wished his master to 
ask a fee, but this the sage twice refused to do, till at last, though patient with more 
than the patience of Job, he lost his temper and demanded fourteen crores of rupees.* 
Kanto despaired of obtaining this monstrous sum, but he went to Mah^r^j* Ragho, 
King of Ajudhid, the greatest man in the world. Now Mahflrdj Ragho, after conquering 
all his foes and amassing a huge treasure, had at the instance of his wise men, per- 
formed the sacrifice of Vishn-jit, as part of which he distributed all his wealth among 
the poor. So complete was his generosity, that he had reduced himself to the use of 
dishes of clay. So when Kanto asked him for fourteen crores, the Rdja was at a loss. 
He thought to himself, that the tributary Rdjas had already been eased of all their 
goods, and that further demands from them would be unavailing, but he told Kanto 
to wait a day. In despair he at last appealed to Kober, the treasurer of the Gods, 
i^ober knew the Rdja^s righteousness, and answered tlic prayer by showering gold for 
the space of nearly foui’ hours, from this the Muni took what ho required, and went 
on his way rejoicing. 

South of this are the two pook of Nagriva and Bibhikan. , Ako the Yedi^ 
where BAra Chandr performed sjicrifices, and the Agna Kdnd or fire^-pooh In thelait 
the sacred day for bathing is the 1st of the dark half of Aghan, and an obtervanoe of 
this festival secures riches iu this world and immortality in the next. Here the Tiloi 
and Sarjd meet, aind the spot of confluence is sacred and of sanctifying power, Beside 
it is Asok Batka the garden of Raghndth Ji, in the middle of which is Sita Etxnd> a 
pond constructed by Sita with her own hands. A bathing festival takes place there on 
the 4th of the dark half of Aghan. West of these are Biddid Kind and Bidid Debi, 
which may be visited on each ashtami of any mouth. 

South of this is the KhajohA or Khanjur Kfind, the bathing in which on Sunday 
cures all diseases, but especially the itch. Beside it is the Maniparbat or Mountain 
of Jewels, a hillock prepared by R£m Chandr for the amusement of Jaaki. 

Beyond these is a string of ponds, which however have no peculiar virtues attach- 
ed to them, Ganesh Kdnd, Dasrath Kund, Kosilya Kdtid, Somitrd Kdnd, Kakayi 
Kdnd, Ddbar Kdnd and Mdhdbar Kund. The two last are named of the two brothers, 
^ose ofierings of flowers Lad been of a sweet smelling savour to Siva. Then come 
Jogni Ktind, so named from the Jogis, who live there, and Urv^hi Kdnd, whose water 
gives beauty. Urvdshi was a lovely woman, whom Indra sent to disturb the devotions 
of a peculiarly ascetic sage of the Himalayas. The sage would not be temped, and ou 
his curse she became ugly. Then he relented, and by his direction she bathed in this 
tank, became beautiful as ever, gave her name to the place, and ascended to heaven. 
There is a festival here on the 3rd of the lunar half of Bh^don. Next to it is the 
Birhaspati Kund, in which those who bathe avoid the evils, shadowed forth in their 
horoscopes. They bathe there ou the 5th of the lunar half of Bhddon. Ruk Maui 
Kdud gives children to the barren and riches to the poor that bathe in it on the 9th 
of the dark of Kdtik. Another place which has virtue for the childless is the neigh- 
bouring pond of Chhirodak or Chhir Sugar. Here Dasrathji performed a sacrifice, in 
answer to which the God appeared with a golden vessel, containing a meal of rice 
and milk. This Dasrath divided into three parts, and distributed to his wives, Kosilya, 
Kakayi, and Somitrd. Of these were born Ram, Bharat, and Lachhraan and Satrohan. 
Then the place was called Chhirodak from the sacred preparation, the colour of which 
its waters still retain. The bathing there is on the 11th of the lunar half of Kddr. 

To the west again near Birhaspati Kund is Dhamjaksh or Dhanaiclia (place of 
treasure). The King of Ajddhid, Hari Chandr, had placed there a vast treasure un- 
der the care of a Yaksh. The only reward for his fidelity that the Yaksh asked was 
that his body might no longer give forth foul odours under the curse of Kober, whose 
rosewater he had pilfered. Hence it is the bestower of beauty, wisdom, and above all 
of perfume. Its holy day is ou the 4th of the dark half of every month. 

Close to the river is the shrine of Vishn Hari, sacred to the memory of Vishn 
Sharma, a famous recluse, and the pools of Chakr Tirth, Basisht Kdnd, S^gar Kflud 
and Brahira Kflnd. Beyond these are the Rin-Mochan which liberates from all man- 
ner of debt or obiigation, and Pap-Mochan which cleanses from all sort of sin. Then 
comes the Lachhmau K6ud, the holy spot opened by Shesh ji for the descent of 
Lachhman when summoned from earth by death. Those who bathe and worship there 
go to heaven. To bathe there on the 5tu of lunar half of S^wan frees from the fear 
of serpents. One who bathes there throughout the month of Baisdkh will live for 
millions of ages in the regions of the Gods. 

South of Ktind is Vetami, from bathing in which one escapes the Judg- 
jment of Yama. Beside it^s Sdraj Kdnd or Ooshark; the water of which beak wounds 
imd purifies from leprosy. It is especially effin^ious on Sundays, appropriately 
euoYifgh,, and on certain othei^ fixed occasions, takes its name firom Gosh, a king oi 
vbo rested there ip bunting onis day, and who^e wounded band was 

tbo iuu was pleased with bis grateftil 

( V ) 

praise and gaTC his name to the tank. West of it arc Rut Kdnd, the giver of beauty, 
and Kdm Kfind, the giver of happiness, Mantreshwa Kdnd, Sitala Devi, where prayers 
are offered on Mondays for delivery from small pox, Bandi Devi, where on Tuesdays 
those in prison are prayed for ; and Chhutki Devi, in which one attains all his desires 
by snapping his fingers on the 14th day of any month. 

To the west of these are Gtipta Hari. where Vishnn in secret did his devotions, 
and Chakra Hari, where Hari dropped his discus. North of Gupt-Hari is Gopirtdr, 
a spot of peculiar holiness, as that in which Rdm Chandr left earth for paradise. 
The chronicles say that R4m Chandr having found his duties on earth accomplished, 
prepared to depart to hi» celestial home. He performed the usual ceremonies, took a 
farewell of his ministers, and then passed out of the city, like the moon rising from 
the sea. As he went out, Lachhmi and Saraswati issued from his arms, commissioned 
to spread wealth and wisdom amongst the mortals of this world. With him went in a 
body his loving subjects, clothed in clean garments, with pure hearts sorrowing. The 
Gods saw and were moved. They came gently through the air in their chariots and 
as they descended, flowers fell in peaceful showers on the vast procession. Then^id 
Brahma the supreme Divinity, “ Leave the visible body, and join us, four brothers.'^ 
And Ram Chandr passed into heaven in the company of the Gods, and the people 
returned to their homes, ** and the place is holy to this day,^^ and he who bathes and 
worships there, becomes sinless and glorious, whatever his previous life. The name 
of the place is Gopirt^r, that which carries across a river, for one is transported there 
from the shores of earth to those of heaven. Pilgrimages are made there on the 
15th of Kdtik and of Kuar. 

In the neighbourhood of Suraj Kfind, are several holy ponds of no special note, 
Durg^ Kdud, Narsrdm, Naray ana-gram, Tripurari Mdhadco, Bilwa Hari, a shrine 
for refuge from poverty, debt, and misfortune ; Valmik Tirth named after a sage, 
whose pale and motionless body became enveloped in an ant-hill ; the house of Singhi 
Rikh, the husband of Rdmehandr's sister ; Pdnhari, Bhdrat Kund, Nandi Grdm, the 
residence of Bharat ; Kalkd Kund, Jatd Kund, where Ramchandr and his companions 
were shaved on their return from their conquests Ajit Vishnu, Satrohan Kund, Gya- 
Kdp, Pishdeh Mochan, which has a charm against ghosts ; Manus or Puni-Nibas. 

And these are the chief of the holy places of Ajudhia, of which there is a fresh 
one to visit, they say, for every day of the solar year. 

J. W. 



1. The tomb of Shah Juran G^on.—Nearly seven hundred years old, for details 
see page 23. 


2. The Shrine of Norehni, Khurd-Macca. — One of the earliest Mahomedan 
immigrants, a renowned saint, who is said to have come from Norehni, hence his desig- 
nation, some 6 or 700 years ago, and to have been buried in Mohullah Khurd-Macca, 
Ajddhia. His tomb is still much revered, and visited, it is said with effect, by the 
afflicted ; but though there are alleged descendants still alive, the traditions of the 
^aint are very vague. His real name is said to have been Mir Ahmed. 

8. The Mosque of the Emperor Bahar . — Age 350 years, for details see page 4L 

4. The Shrine of Khwaja Huthi, — Situated on the Kabir-tila. This man was 
a follower of Babar and a renowned saint whose enshrined tomb on one of the chief 
bastions of Ramkote is still revered. 

5. The Shrines of Noah^ Seth and Job, — Mentioned in Mahomedan Histories 
800 years ago, see page 25. 

6. The Mosque of Alamgir, — At Surgadwar and at Thakor Tarcta, over 200 years 
old, now in ruins. 

7. The Shrine of Makhdum Sheikh Bhika — A western devotee of renown, 200 
years ago, some of whose decendants are still extant. This shrine is east of Ajddhi^, 
and there is another to the same saint at Billohur ; both are still revered. 

8. The shrine of Shah Saman Fariad-ruSj and the tomb of Shah Chup. — Are 
relies of Mahomedan antiquity in Ajudhia, of which the traditions even are lost. 

9. The Shrine of Bari-Bud, — A sainted lady of renown, of the days of Rafi-ud- 
Diijat Shams-ud-din, (A. D. 1719), situated east of Fyzabad. 

10. The Samanburj. — Near the Opium Godown. This bastion was built by 
Shuja-ud-Dowla, near his palace, from which at a considerable distance the river then 
flowed. Tradition says that by oftering up 125,000 cows and milk in proportion, 
the Nawdb induced the river to charge its course, and to flow under his castle. The 

bastion has now disappeared, and the river has again receded to a distance. 


11. fjulabbdrL — These buildings including courts, gateways &c , were prepared 
by Nawdb Shuja-ud-Dowla, during his life-time, as the final resting place of his remains, 
and here he was in due course buried, being the first of his dynasty whose body^ 
was not carried away to his native country for interment. 

12. The Mosque of Mansur AU Khan^s Begam, — This building was long used 
as a Jail by the Oudh and British Governments. It has latterly been made over to 
Hakim Shuffa-ud-dowla, on condition that it is kept in good repair as a place of public 

13. LaUBagh.^k famous gaiien constructed by Shuja-ud-Dowla, which was 
formerly enclosed by a high wall, and contained many fine buildings, but of which 
there is nothing now left except the old mango trees. TJiere were also in those days 
three other famous gardens of which visible signs still remained at annexation, viz, 
the Aish, or Asf-bagh, Biland^bagh and the Bagh of Baj& Jhao Lai. On the site of 
these the Civil Station has since been built. 

( ii ) 

14. The Ungurt’‘bagh . — This was one of the Bahu Begam^s favorite gardens, and 
was given by her as a residence td her son-^inJaw Mahomed Takki, on his marriage 
with her daughter. It is situated near the ehok, and is in the possession of Agha* 
Haidar, the son of Mahomed Takki. 

15. The MoH Mahal and Khurd Mahal.-^krt of the dd royal palaces situated 
near the Dilkusha, and are occupied for life only by female members of Shuja-ud^ 
Dowla^s family. These buildings under existing orders, will eventually revert to the 
Nazul Department. 

16. The Mosque ofGurji J5^^.--Near the Husnu Kutra Police Station. This was 
built by the man whose name it bears, a Cavalry Officer of Shuja-ud-Dowla^s Army. 

17. The Tripolia.^Ox three arched gateway in the chok, is one of the buildings 
for which the town is indebted to Shuja-ud-DowIa. 

18. Calcutta Khurd.-^Th\% is the name of the fort near Mirunghat, now 
occupied as a Commissariat Godown. It was built by Shuja-ud-Dowla along with the 
City fortifications (vulgarly called Safil, properly Fasil,) after his defeat by the British 

19. Salarjung*^s Palace. — ^(Near the Mint or Lock Hospital.) This gentleman 
was the father-in-law of Shuja-ud-Dowla, and the buildings are still in the possession 
of the family, in the person of Jafir Ali Khan. 

20. Motihagh. — South of the Chok, one of the famous royal gardens assigned 
in perpetuity by the Ex- King to his favorite physician the popular Hakim, Shuffa- 

21. The Mosque and Sardi of Hussan Huzza ATAa®.— Adjoining the Chok. The 
Shiahs of the City have their Friday prayers here. The upper part of the building 
which adjoins the single-arch gateway to the Chok, has been made over to the Chief 
Priest (Pesh-Namaz) of the City. The shops below belong to the Nazul Department, 
as does the Serai which is the chief resting-place of the t6wn. 

22. Serai Unis. — Mian Unis was a eunuch and pupil of the well known Almas 
AH Khan, of Asf-ud-Dowla^s time. This Serai has now been demolished to make 
way for that now under construction by the Mahilrdja of Bulrampfir in Rikkab- 
gunj. Mian Unis has left a grand monument to his memory in the far-famed 
Tamarind Avenue. 

23. The Mansions and buildings of Darad) All Khan. — Darab AH Khan, was a 
Hindu by birth, who was born to all intents a eunuch. He embraced the Mahom- 
edau faith, and rose to be the Bahu Begam’s confidential adviser and servant. His 
Mansion is the large house near the Gupt4r Park, now occupied by the Commissariat 
Officer, which has been rendered historical in connexion with the trial of Warren 
Hastings. His other buildings are now Nazfil, and are occupied by the Tahiil, Octroi 
Godown &c. 

)?4. The Jawahir Bagh. — This was one of the famous old royal gardens, and in 
it was built the Bahu Begam^s grand tomb., 

25. The Dilkusha Palace. — ^This was the royal residence and court of the 

Bahu Begam. It is now the Opium Godown. Some idea may be formed of its 
former extent from the fact that a part of it was known as the residence with the 
thousand doors.^^ ^ 

26. The Hyat Bukhsh and Farhut Gardens in Ajudhia, were formerly 

fine royal gardens. The former is assigned for life ta the distinguished Pandit 
Umadut, the .latter is held in part by the BAja of Dumraon, (who has made it into a 
fine garden),Und in part by the abbots of the Digambari Akhara, |to whom it was. 

made over in part compensation for the Guptar Park; 

• * 

( iii ) 

27. The Baku Beganie Situated on the side of the Dilkusha road. 

For an account of her grand tomb see page 26. 

28. The tomh of Burnt /CAann^m,— This lady was the wife of Unjum-ud-Dowlaj 
brother of the Bahu Begam^ and the tomb was built by Almas All Khan. It is 
now in the occupation ol^ the Church Mission. 

29. The Buildings of Mahomed Tahki and Mirza Haidar , — Relatives of the 
Bahu Begam, whose heirs are still pensioners on her fund. These buildings are 

• east of the Chok j they are let out to Government Officials, but are now rapidly going 
to decay. 

30. The Mosque and Emdmbdrd of •Jawahir AH iCAafi,— The Id prayers of 
the Shiahs are offered in this mosque, and in the Emdmbdrd Tazids are annually set 
up, but strange to say they are in the hands of a Hindti, Babu Bachu Singh, the great* 
nephew of the Darab All Khan, mentioned above under No. 23. The Babu is a 
well-to-do citizen of Fyzabad. 

31. The Mosque and tomb of Yakub Ali In Mohulla Attul Khan. These 

buildings were constructed in accordance with the will of Yakub Ali a eunuch of 
Suja-ud-Dowla’s Harem, by his brother Usuf Ali. They contain a fine specimen of 
stone fretwork. They are still in the possession of a member of the family, Mahomed 
Nasim Khan. 


It is said that an iniuential Bhar chief of the name of ** Kathore” founded the 
village of Rdth now known as Rahet, to which he gave his own name. Here he had 
his residence and made his revenue collections. He is also traditionally believed to 
have founded another village to the eastward in the direction of Cherdn Chhapr^ to 
which he gave the same name and used in the same way. From that day the one 
village was known as Pacjihim (the western) Rdth, the other Purab (the eastern) R&th. 
This is the Kanungo s account. The more Ukely tradition as to the name is that men- 
tioned in the account of Pargana Haveli-Oudh and which I obtained from Mah^rdjA 
Mitn Singh, mz. that at a former period the territory between the rivers Gogrd and 
Gumti was known as Pachhimrdth and Purdbrdth. 

From tho village of Pachhimrdth or Rahet the Pargana takes its name. 

More than 200 years ago, one Bhagan Rde Bais, whose family history will be de- 
tailed further on, came from Baisw^ir^ and founded the 
Bdzdr still known as Rdmpdr-Bhagan, A Government 
fort was also there built, and the Government revenue was 
thereafter collected there. 

This Tehsfl contained the four zillah sub-divisions of 
Kdtsar^on, Achhord, Asthana, and Bhadola. 

There was also formerly the usual Tuppa distribution, 
and the names of these sub-divisions are marginally* indi- 
cated, but they have long been set aside. 

The Pargana during native rule consisted of 856 raozfe, 
or villages, of which 50 were off-shoots (Dakhlis.) Under 
the operations of the demarcation department these villages were reduced to 467 in 
number. Of these 104 villages have since been transferred to Parganas Amsin and 
Mangalsi, to give convenient jurisdictions, while 52 other 
Havdfoudh. villages have for the same reason, been added from the 

jurisdictions marginally* noted, so that Pargana Pachhim- 
Sfiltanpur, rdtli as now constituted contains 415 Mozds. 



No. of 








Melidona, ... 



Malethu, ... 









Kutwxraon, ... 














Total, ... 


This Pargana is bounded on the cast by Manjhor^, on the west by Rddoli, on the 
north by Haveli-Oudli and on the south by Sultanpdr-Baros^, which are all sub-divi- 
sions of this district except Rddoli which belongs to Bdrdbanki. 

The fargana is intersected by two unnavigablo rivulets, the Marhd and the Biswi. - 
The former stream takes its rise in Moza Basdrhi in the Bdrdbanki District. The latter 
has its source in the Anjar jhil in Pargana Sdltanptir. After passing througir** 
Pachhimrdth these streams unite in the neighbourhood of the town of Manjhord and 
from that point the river is known as the Tons, on which stands the station of Azim- 
gurh, a stream which is rendered memorable by traditionary associations with RSm 

There are remains of the former Bhar population in about 32 villages of this 
jurisdiction, the chief of these being those which are mar- 

mSI ginaUy*mentioned. 



T4rdi and Gondor« 

The Mowing details embrace such meagre particulars 
as have been ascertained r^;arding the former landed pro- 
prietors of the jurisdiction. 

L The Mahomedum of AUjritr-Seorah.^li is traditionally affirmed that in 
Jehftngir’s time Khoddddd Khan Pathdn, a native of Peshdwar, accompanied one of 
the Subaddrs of the Province to these parts, and having established a residence where 
his cattle and horses were encamped, he gave to it the name of Oothwfoa (the cattle- 
pen). This became the nucleus of an estate which soon contained 60 mozds of 
which the founder had control during a long life, but after his death the property 
dwindled away till we now find the descendants of Khoddddd who still inhabit 11 
villages, in proprietary possession of one and a half villages only paying Rs. 794 
. revised Government demand ; while they have a subproprietary claim not yet disposed 
of to two others. 

II. Ckolidns of Ahran, — The family traditions set forth that one Rde Bhdn 
Rde of this clan, the ancestor of Tehdil Singh and Amar Singh the present repre- 
sentatives of the family, came with his followers from Mynpdri to bathe at Ajudhid 
some 400 years ago, and ended in replacing the Bhars and assuming possession of 5G5 
mozas, of which however 125 only were of this pargana, the rest being of Isoli, 
Sdltanpiir and Khardsd. Rde Bhan Rde was succeeded by his two sons Jaleh Rde 
aiid* Dunya Rie who divided the property equally between them. The estate of the 
former of these brothers was swallowed up by the Bhalesultdn tribe, a century and a 
half ago. The portion of the estate (02 king’s mozds) which pertains to this pargana 
and which belonged to the other brother, remained in tlie proprietary possession of 
his descendants till annexation ; they have since lost the fntgaon estate under Settle- 
ment decree. 

The offspring of Rde Bhdn Rde arc still found inhabiting 16 mozds, and the 
revenue they pay under the revised assessment amounts to Rs. 19,721'. 

HI. The Bais of Malethu, — ^Tho family traditions have it that some 200 years 
ago, one Zaminibhdn Singh of this clan, the ancestor of Kunjal and Bhabdt the pre- 
sent representatives of the family, came from Mungi Patau in the province of Malwa> 
(the locality whence the Bais of Baiswdrd also trace their advent,) and overthrew 
and dispossessed the Bhars, and increased his estate till it contained 84 villages in- 
cluding the Kdrawan and Pdrd-Malothu properties of 42 villages in this Pargana^ 
and the Johanrdmpur property of 42 villages in Pargana Sultanpur. 

The 42 Pachhimrdth Mozds are now included in 10 demarcated villages, and to 
these the descendants of Zaminibhdn have subproprietary claims ; they are residents 
of five of them. 

IV. The Bala of Sohwal and Jagat Rde of this clan the ancestor of 

Subdhdn Singh, Otar Singh and others now living, came from Baiswdrd some 400 
years ago and aided in the sui^ression of the Bhars. He had two sons Rddar Sdli 
and Mehndi Sdh. The former established the Rdrd estate of 27 villages, the latter 
the Mehdona estate of a similar number of villages. These properties ske now in- 
cluded in the estate of Mahdrdjd Sir Mdn Singh, and in six of these villages only 

■•have the Bais anything resembling a subproprietary position— in some of the others 
they kill, cultivate the soil. 

V. Th& Bais of ITchhilpali-^Ahoui 3 or 400 years ago Newdd Sdh of this tribe, 

the ancestor of Isri Singh and others still living, came from Baiswdrd and succeeded 
the Bhars in the management of this estate, which he then increased to 20 Mozds. 
Newad Sdh in his lifetime made over 8 of these Mozds to hia priest, a Tewari Brah- 
min. The offspring of Newad Sdh are still in subordinate possession of the remain- 
ing 12 villages, ^ but their precise status, has still to be determined by the Settlement 
Courts. ^ 

VL Ihe Bais of RSmp&r Bhagun, TikrC :Moti Rde and Chhote Rde, two 
brothers of this tribe, the ancestors of Jaskaran Singh, JBiuda Singh, Sanomdn Singh, 

( B ) 

ice., wbo are atill livings oame from Baiawiri, with a Faimin for 1Q4 vill^es and the 
office of Chodhri, [from Jehangfr Sh&b^ and fought the Bhara^ replacing them in 
the poaaeaaion of Mozi ,Nitw&ri*Chhatarpdr and 51 other villages of Tuppa 
Farsdmi, and 52 villages of Tuppa Pindu, including Bdmpur-Bhagan. The office of 
Ghodhri of Tuppa Bahef was also held by the family in the person of the direct 
ancestor of Jaskaran Singh, but this office they had lost long before annexation. 

This family still holds most of the ancestral property in direct engagement with 
the State, and it is now represented by 414 demarcated villages. Five other villages 
had however, passed into Taldkds before annexation, and the precise status of the 

Bais family in regard to these has not yet been finally defined. 

• • 

VII. The Bais of Oondor — One Chhetai Singh of this tribe the ancestor of 
Dunyft Singh and Daljit Singh, now living, came from BaiswM 300 years ago, and 
took service with some Bhar chief. Having afterwards invited his master to partake 
of his hospitality, he put him to death and took possession of his estate. Chhetai 
Singh had three sons, Chandi B4e who succeeded to Gondor, and whose descendants 
in the present generation still hold the parent village in their proprietary possesifion.. 
They have been named above ; Kuliin Bie, who founded Kulidn-Bhadars^, Pargana 
Haveli-Oudh ; and Besingh Bae who founded Mozd Besingh in the same Pargana. 

From the above details it will be seen that there are no less than five families of 
Bais alleging a separate and distinct advent and origin in this Pargana. The»*e are 
four similar families in the neighbouring pargana of Mangalsi, and one in Haveli 
Oudh. I request attention to my note on the Bais of Mangalsi ; for the observations 
there recorded apply equally here. All these Bais are looked down upon and disowned 
by the Tilokchandi Bais, and I have no doubt that their ancestors were persons of 
low origin, who have been admitted within the last few centuries only, to a place 
amongst the BAjpdt tribes. 

Two Tildk^ have their centres in this Pargana, Khajrahat and Mehdona. Of 
these I now proceed to give some details, 

VIII. The Bachgotis of KhajraAat.-^Bih& Abhedut Sing the present owner 
of this Taluks, is the younger brother of Bdbd Jeydut Sing of Bhiti ; both being 
ofF-shoots of the Kdrwar Baj, An account of the older of these brothers is given 
at page 5 of the Majhora history, but some further particulars of the family have since 
been obtained and these may as well be given here. 

After the overthrow of Shdjd-6d-doldh at the battle of Buxar more than 80 
years ago, ho is known for a time to have abandoned the neighbourhood of Fyzabad, 
and to havb spent some months in the direction of Bohelkhund. Advantage was taken 
of his absence by amongst others Ddniapat, the then Taldkddr of Kurwar, to increase 
his possessions by annexing thereto Khajrahat and numerous other estates of Par- 
ganas Pachhimrdth and Haveli-Oudh, but on the return of the Nawdb, the BdbdT* 
was again deprived of all these new acquisitions. After the death of Shdj4-fid-3oldh, 
and in the days when his widow the Bihu Begam held this part of the country as 
jagir, Bdbfi Baryar Singh a younger brother of Duniapat, again suceeeded in acquir- 
ing a property in these Parganas, which paid an annual demand of Bs. 80,000 to 
the State, and of this estate he retained possession till 1232 Fasli. In the following 
year owing to the Bdbd's default, the then Ndzim VeUyet AU deprived him of his 
untire property. In 1234 FasU the Nazim returned to the Bdbd the Khajr&hat por- 
tion of the property, consisting of 26 villages, held on an annual rent of Bs. 6,000, but 
of which sum Bs. 4,700 was remitted on account of the T^dkdilr’s n&nk£r. The rest 
lof the estate was settled village by village with the zemindirs, ^th whom the N£zim 

entered into direct engagement. This state of things ran on till 1243 FasU, when the 


( 4 ) 

then Ndzim Mirza Abdulli Beg tnstde the Bhiti and Khajrahat properties, consisting 
of the entire estate that Bdbd Barydr Singh and his predecessor had accumulated, 
over to the chief of the rival clan of the neighbourhood, B 4 bd Harpdl Singh Qarag- 
bans, the ancestor of the Taldkddr of Khapradfh. Bdbd Barydr Singh then fled to 
the British territories where he soon afterwards died. 

In 1245 Fasli Darshan Singh became Ndzim, and during his rule the sons of 
Barydr Singh, Babus Jeydut Singh and Abhedat Singh were restored to the Bhiti and 
Khajrahat estates, which moreover were considerably added to. 

The two brothers divided the family property in 1259 Fasli, the elder receiving 
the Bhiti estate estimated at one and a half share, and the younger Khajrahat, of one 

The former of tliese now consists of 81 villages paying Rs. 37,850-10-0 per annum 
to the State, the latter of54i villages paying Rs. 21,472. 

These brothers are highly respected, and I look upon them as amongst the best 
our smaller Talukdte. The history of their family will be given in greater detail 
in a subsequent report, when the history of the head of their tribe, the Rdj£ of 
Kdrwdr comes to l)e written. 

IX. The Sanlcaldip of Mehdond . — According to the family records, Saddsukh 
Pdtak was a Sankaldlp brahmin of note in Bhojpilr, who held the office of Chaudhri. 
In the general confusion that followed the overthrow of Shujd-dd-doldh by the Eng- 
lish in that quarter, Gopdlrdm the son of Saddsdkli Patak left his home and 
finj^ly settled in the village of Nandnagar-chori, parganah Amordh, zillah Busti, about 
the end of the last century. Purandur Rdm Pdtak, son of Oopdl Rdm, subsequently 
crossed the river, and married into the family of Sadliai Ram 
Misir, zeminddr of Palid, in the Fyzabad district, which latter 
village he thenceforth made his home. Purandur Rdm had 
five sons whose names are marginally * detailed. The eldest 
of these commenced life as a trooper in the old Bengal Re- 
gular Cavalry. 

Whilst Bakhtdwur Singh was serving in this capacity at Lucknow, his fine figure 
and manly bearing attracted the notice of NaVdbSddut All Khan, who having obtained 
Ids discharge, appointed him a Jemaddr of cavalry, and shortly afterwards made him a 

After the death ofSddut All, Bakhtdwur Singh secured the favour of Ghazf-fld-dm 
Hyder, the first king of Oudh, which led to his further advancement, and to the ac- 
quisition of the life-title of Rdjd. This title was subsequently granted in perpetuity by 
Mahomed Ali Shdh, when he also turned the Mehdond property into a Rdj, under the 
' following farmdn, under date the 13th Rabi-fis-sdni 1253 Hijri. 

** Whereas the services, intelligence, and devotion of Rdjd Bakhtdwur Singh are well 
known to, and appreciated by me. I therefore confer upon him the proprietary title 
of the Mehdond estate, to be known hereafter as a Rdj, of which I constitute and ap- 
point him the Rdjd in perpetuity. All rights and interests pertaining thereto such as 
sir, sayar, jagir, ndnkdr, abkdri, transit dues, &o., as well as a revenue assignment of 
42 mozds and some smaller holdings, are also gifted to him for ever. He is, more- 
over, considered the Premier Rdjd of Oudh, and all the other R^ds are to recognize 
ton as such, All Qovemtoent dues and revenue from the villages alluded to, are 
reload for ever, and no<>tber is to consider himself entitied to share these bounties 

the Rdjd.. 

• BakhtAwur Singli. 
Shcodm Singh. 
Inohha Singh. 
Darshan Singh. 

Dab£ Porshad Singh. 

( 6 ) 

The detail of the grant is as follows:-^ 

1. Cashn^nk^r Bs. 74,616-8-9. 

2. Mafi and jagir lands 41 mozds, and some smaller holdings. 

3. Sir, 10 per cent ( ? of the estate ) to be revenue-free. 

4. Sayar, including the bazdr dues of Shahganj, Darshan-Nagar, and Rdeganj, 

and all transit duties on tho estate. 

5. Abw^b Fojdfiri, including all fines levied. 

6. Abw^b Dewflni, including periodical tribute, occasional offerings, and fees 

on marriages and births. 

Bakhtiwur Singh then summoned his younger brother Darshan Singh to Court, 
and the latter soon received tho command of a regiment. This was followed in 1822-3 
by the appointment of Darshan Singh to the cliakla of Salone and BaiswM, aniia. 
1827 to the Nizdmat of SuMnpdr including Fyzabad, &c. 

Shortly after this Darshan Singh obtained the titles of Bfijd Bahdddr for his 
services to the State, in apprehending and sending in to Lucknow Sheodin Singh Beh- 
reliah, Talukd^ir of Surajpur, zillah Dariabdd, a notorious disturber of the public peace, 
and revenue defaulter of those days. 

In 1842 A. D. Rdja Darshan Singh obtained the Nizimat of Gonda-Baralch 
which he had previously held for a short time in 183G, and he then seriously embroiled 
himself with the Nepal authorities in the following year, by pursuing the present 
Mahardjd of Balrampur, Sir Dirgbcje Singh, whom he accused of being a Revenue de- 
faulter, into that territory. 

The circumstances connected with this aggression of territory are fully detailed 
by Slecman at page 59 Vol. I of his Journal. 

The pressure at that time put upon the King of Oudh by Lord Ellenborough, led 
to the dismissal from office and imprisonment of R^jd Darshan Singh, and to the re- 
sumption in direct management of the Mehdona estate which tho brothers had already 
created. But all those punishments were merely nominal, for in a very few months 
lUja Darshan Singh was released from confinement, retiring for a time to the British 
territories, while the older brother Rfijd Bakhtfiwar Singh was allowed to resume the 
management of the Molidona estate; and this was almost immediately followed by 
Rdj^ Darslmn Singh being again summoned to Court, when without having performed 
any new ^ijervice to the State, he had the further title of Sultanat-Bah^Lddr conferred 
upon him. But the Rdja did not long survive to enjoy these 
Rugbitdy»r a'nghf honors, for within a few weeks he was seized with an 
MAn Singh (originally named jihiees from which he never recovered, and it was with ‘difiS- 
culty that he was conveyed to the enchanted precincts 
, of holy Ajfidhia, where he speedily breathed his last, leaving three sons whose names 
are marginally* indicated. 

In 1845 A. D. Mdn Singh the youngest of these sons was appointed Nazim of 
Daridb4d Rodoli at the early age of 24, and to this charge the Sdltanpfir Niz^mat was 
al^ atterwards added. Mdn Singh soon gained his spurs by an expedition against the 
then owner of the Sfirajpdr estate (for over-throwing whose predecessor, Sheodin Singh, 
his father had also obtained honors, in October 1830^) in the course of which that 
Taidkddr's fort was surrounded and assaulted, and its owner Singhjd Singh, captured 
• and sent to Lucknow (see Sleeman’s Journal page 256 , VoL II.) For this service Min 
Singh obtained the title of Bljl-Bahlddr. 

( 6 ) 

In 1847 A. D. Min Singh was ordered to proceed against the strong-hold of the 
Qargbans chief, Harpdl Singh. The details of that affair are also to be found in Slee- 
man*s Journal Vol, I, p. 144. 

There are two sides to the story. The one is that Harpil finding his fort sur- 
rounded and resistance hopeless, surrendered at discretion and unwittingly lost his life. 
The other is that he was betrayed under promises of safety into a conference, and was 
beheaded in cold blood. One thing is certain that the transaction was looked on in 
different lights at Fyzabad and at Lucknow. The local traditions of what occurred 
are not favourable to the chief actor in the tragedy, while tjhi© service ho had per- 
formed was thought so important at the capital, that Kiimjang (steadfast in fight) 
was added to the existing distinctions of the yonng Rfijl As an impartial historian 
I am bound to add that I have yet to learn that any fight at all took place, when 
Harpdl Singh, who was at the time in wretched health, met his death. 

''' In 1855 M^n Singh obtained the further honorary titles of Sultanat-Bahd- 
ddr for apprehending and sending to Lucknow, where he was at once put to death, 
the notorious proclaimed offender Jagar-Ndth Chaprdsi, whoso proceedings occupy no 
inconsiderable space in Sleeman’s Journal. 

Almost simultanoously with the last recorded event, Bakht^war Singh died 
at Lucknow. He left a widowed daughter but no son, and on the evidence of Sleeman, 
who had good opportunities of knowing, (and who wrote in February 1850 while 
Bakhtdwar Singh still lived,) he had previously nominated as his sole heir, RAja MAn 
Singh, the youngest of the three sons of Darshan Singh. The following is a free 
translation of RAjA BakhtAwar Singh’s last Will and Testament, now in the possession 
of the family of the MahArAjA. ** It is known to one and all that by my own unaided 
exertions I obtained the favor of my sovereign who conferred on me the title of Raj A, 
the proprietary functions of which rank I have to this time exercised in the MehdonA 
estate, which was also created by the Royal order into a RAJ ; and moreover other pro- 
perties were also purchased or acquired by mortgage by me, which are held in tho 
name and under the management of my brothers Raja Darshan Singh, Inchha Singh 
and Dabipershad, and also in the names of my nephews. It had recently happened that 
in my old age, I had been imprisoned for arrears of revenue, and although my brother 
Inchha Singh and others of my family still lived, it fell to the lot of MAn Singh alone to 
assist me as a son, and by the payment of lacs of rupees to release me from my difficulties. 
Whereas the recollection of a man is only kept alive by the presence of offspring, 
and whereas I have not been blessed with a son, therefore be it known that while still 
in the full exercise of my senses, I have voluntarily adopted RAjA MAn Singh as my own 
son and representative, and have made over to him with the sanction of the llovemment 
my entire property howsoever acquired, and wheresoever situated, and whether till lately 
held in my own name and management or in the name and management of other 
members of the family. All my possessions have now been transferred by me to RAjA 
MAn Singh, and his name has been substituted for my own in the Government records. 
No brother or n§phew has any right or claim against the said RAjA Man Singh, who 
will be my sole representative in perpetuity. But whereas it is a duty incumbent on 
me and on RAjA MAn Singh to make provision for the other members of the family, 
both now and hereafter, therefore the following details are to be followed, so that they 
may never suffer from want. At the same time it is incumbent on the said relatives to 
treat Min Singh as their own son, taking care that th4y never fail to conform to bis 
wishes in all things. ShJuId they fail in doing so, he has full power to resume 

th view to these wishes being carried out this de^ of gift (Hihitn^) has been ^ 
penned^' ■ ‘ , ' ' ^ ' 



To my widow, .• 


800 per mensem in Cash, 


„ B&midhin Singh, 


600 „ 


„ Ragbar Singh and his sons, 

800 „ 


„ Inchha Singh and his sons, 


800 „ „ „ 

Thus, Rs. 300 to Inchha Singh and 

200 to his sons. 


„ Hurdat Singh and his brothers and 

his spnSi • • 

300 „ „ „ 


„ Hamaraip Singh, 

100 „ „ „ 


„ Darshan Singh’s temple, 


The Sargaddwflr ThdkfirdwSrd, 




The R^jghit, „ 


20 „ „ 

The Stiraj Kfind, „ 


10” „ „ „ 

8. Certain lands were also assigned to different persons and objects which need 
not be detailed. • •• 

When Oudh was annexed Rdjd Miin Singh was found in possession of MehdonA 
the family property, with a then paying jama, after deduction of Ks. 66,053 Ninkir, 
of Rs. 1,91,174. 

He was at that time returned as a defaulter to the extent of Rs. 50,000 of revenue 
due to the ex-king. In consequence he was deprived at the first summary settlement 
of his entire estate, and sought refuge for a time in Calcutta. This did not, however, 
prevent his offering protection and convoy to such of the Fyzabad oflBcials as chose to 
accept it, when they had to flee from Fyzabad, nor did it prevent him from procuring 
boats for them and starting them safely on their voyage down the river. 

It has been stated in a former part of this volume that the mutiny found the 
Rdj^ a prisoner in our hands, and that he was released in order that he might protect 
our women and children. Of these proceedings the Deputy Commissioner, Captain 
Reid at the time' thus wrote. 

“ Without Rdjd Mdn Singh’s assistance it would have been quite impossible to 
get away this large number, and for his good services he well deserves our gratitude. 

I was always opposed to the plan of imprisoning him, ho was the only man who could 
have saved Fyzabad, aided by our Treasury, and I believe he would have done it.” 

At a subsequent period the Rdj^ was instrumental in saving Mrs. Mill and other 
Europeans, who certified to his uniform kindness and consideration. 


On these services Sir John Lawrence made the following remarks on the occasion 
of his grekt Lucknow Darbdr : — 

You have in my estimation a special claim to honour and gratitude, inasmuch^ 
as at the commencement of the mutiny in 1857, you gave refuge to more thati fifty 
English people in your fort at Fyzabad, most of whom were helpless women and 
children, and thus, by God’s mercy, were instrumental in saving all their lives.” 


In the earlier days of the mutiny, Mahirliji Mfin Singh remained in constant com- 
munication with Mr. Gubbins, the former Financial Commissioner, and Sir Charles . 
Wingfield who was then at Gorakhpfir, and he was an eamMt advocate for an advance 
against Lucknow, by the Gogra and Fyzabad route. So long as there was a 
of such a movement being carried out he never wavered in,hi8 allegiance to the British 
Qovwnment, but having previously made it distinctly known that such would of 
necessity be the result if no such movement was speedily carried otih sooner did 
t he hw tbat^jK^enae s« the Ggpra ^te had bf|^ i^bandoned, than 
he proeet^ ^ Jowthe caittse itt 

( 8 ) 

During the siege of the Residency, although the Mah&r&j6 had command of an 
important rebel post, he was in frequent communication with the garrison, and there 
is little question that had his heart been in the rebel cause he could have made our 
position even more disagreeable .than it was, and colour is given to this belief from 
the fact, that when Lucknow fell, Min Singh returned to his fort of Shahganj, where 
he in turn was besieged by the rebels, and had actually to be relieved by a force 
under Sir H. Grant. 

On the return of peace tho title of Mahirija was conferred on Min Singh, the 
estate he possessed at annexation was restored to him, and 'the confiscated property 
of the Riji of Gondi was made over to him in proprietary title for his services. 

In tho great Oudh controversies that have for several years engaged so large a 
share of the public attention, Mahirdja Min Singh was the moiitli-pioce, as he un- 
doubtedly also represented the intellect, of tho Taldkdars ; and it was for the assist- 
ance rendered in bringing these controversies to a satisfactory close, tliat he had so 
recently been decorated by command of Her Majesty, with tho Star of India. The 
words of the Viceroy on presenting this decoration were these. “ Maliinija Min 
Singh, Her Majesty the Queen of England and India having heard of your good 
services in various important matters connected with tho Administration of the Pro- 
vince of Oudh, has thought fit to appoint you a Knight Commander of the Most 
Exalted Order of tho Star of India,” 

It will thus be seen that tho Shihganj family is but of yesterday. It was created 
by a daring soldier of fortune, and it was ennobled by another, who to courage of an 
admittedly high order, added an intellect than which there were few more able or 
more subtle. 

Since this biography was sketched the subject of it has been gathered to his 
fathers. Ho died in his 50th year after a protracted illness of eighteen months, con- 
tracted in the over-zealous performance of onerous duties connected with the final 
settlement and consolidation of the Talukdari system of Oudh. 

During an intimate official and friendly intercourse of 8 years with tho late 
Mah/lr^j^, the writer has had the best possible opportunity of judging of his worth, 
and he hesitates not to say that throughout a prolonged experience of more than a 
quarter of a century, he has never met a native who was his equal in general informa- 
tion and ability. A reserved manner and an independent spirit prevented the Mah^- 
rdjd from acquiring popularity amongst the European community. This was added 
to in respect of the local authorities, by the attention which the Maharfijd’s represen- 
tations always commanded at Lucknow. 

His long intimate connexion with the native Government of tho Prqyince, had 
raised up many personal enemies amongst his fellow-subjects, yet the news of his 
wieath was received with unmixed regret and concern by the Europeans and Natives of 
the Province ; and often has it since been asked by those who knew him best, ** shall 
we ever see his like again.” 

It was not the lot of the writer always to agree in the demands set up by the lato 
Mahdrdjd on the part of the Oudh Talfikddrs, and he has not infrequently considered 
and represented these demands to bevjHfetentious and unreasonable ; but he is bound to 
say that when this was the case, it miM generally in support of the claims of a friend or 
an acquaintance, and rarely to serve himself that the Mahdrdjd had raised his voice* 
He has been described as and unyielding, and yet tho concessions he 

made in favor of the subordinateln’oprietors on his own estate, obtained the acknow- 
ledgments of the highest authorities, and so reasonable did the writer find him in this 
respect, that he obtained him a carte blanche to copper a certain percentage pf t' 
profit on eveiy old proprie^^ his estate^ whether bo was legally a&titlad to it or not 

( 9 ). 

It i 9 a if 0 majkabto circumgtaaoe that the year lOTO ha 9 proved fat^ to all the three 
sons ot Il£j$ Darahan ^ingh. Bugbardy&l the second son, died on the 2 nd ICay 
1870; Sir MAn Singh, K. C. S. I., the youngest, pn the llth October 1870 ; 

and BAjA BAmkdhin the eldest, on the 13th November 1870. 

Of these the first mentioned will ever be remembered with a shudder by t^e 
readers of Sleeman’s Journal, as the cruel official devastator of the trans-QogrA 
districts. The latter long devoted himself with credit to the management of the 
family property, but in consequence of a petty zenAnA dispute he relinquished the 
charge and betook hiniself for several years to a life of devotion at Benares. He 
however returned to Oudh shortly before the province was annexed, and since then 
the brothers have made ShAhganj, a fortified town founded by their uncle and father, 
and which is situated 14* miles South of Fyzabad, their general residence. 

MahArAjA MAn Singh has left a daughter who has a son, Koer Pertab Narain 
Singh, to whom it was his intention that his fine estate, which at present yields a 
Bevenue of Rs. 4,32,128 per annum to Government (the Gondah property not having^ 
been as yet re-assessed) should eventually descend, but the will leaves the property to 
the widow wlio is not the lad’s grand-mother, and to her is assigned the duty of 
finally naming the heir. 

The will is in the following terms : — 

“ Whereas my intentions as to the nomination of any of the youths (of the family) 
as my representative, have not as yet been finally matured, it is necessary in the mean- 
time to appoint the MahArAni as representative and proprietrix that she, until such 
time as she may appoint a representative, may remain as my representative and 
proprietrix, but without the power of transfer. No co-sharer has any concern what- 
ever with my property real or personal. I have therefore written and filed this will 
and testament, that at the proper time it may take effect. Dated, 22 nd April 1862,*' 

The other brothers who were men of an altogether inferior stamp, have each left 
several sons, who.are supported by the estate. 

It is popularly averred, with what truth it is hard to say, that on one occasion 
BAjA BakhtAwar Singh intimated his intention of leaving his estates to BAmAdhin, his 
riches to Bagbar Dyal, and his army to his favorite, MAn Singh, He was asked how 
the army was to be supported without property or wealth, and he is said to have 
replied naively, I am no judge of men if he who gets the army, does not very soon 
possess himself of the estates and the treasure as well/' 

Be the truth of this story what it may, the Mahir&jd rested his right and title to 
the estates, on Bakhtdwar Singh’s last Will and Testament, a free translation of 
which harf'tJready been given. 

Amongst the Mahfirfijd’s papers the following documents have been found, and I - 
give them a place hero, as bearing upon his pubUc conduct during the most trying 
period of his career. They show that he had not much to be grateful for in his early 
connexion with the British Government, yet he did not abandon the British officers 
and their wives in the hour of their greatest need. 



= ' ' Kdijfn Jofig, 

(10 ) 

there is a good time to come. If you now do good service to Government, you will 
find it to your own advantage, and you will become better ofif than you ever were. 

You are too wise and clever to suppose that the prosent disturbance will not soon 
be settled, when the bad will be punished and the good rewarded. 

Lucknow ; | Your friend, 

The nth June 1857. j (So.) HENRY M. LAWRENCE,” 

“ Dear Raja MXn Singh, * 

You have deserved well of the British Government so far. Do yet more, and 
earn for yourself the high reward whicli is held out. 

Lucknow: | (Sd.) MARTIN GUBBINS, 

The 22nd June 1857. j Financial Commissioner'* 

The undersigned being about to leave the escort of Raja M^n Singh, desire to 
place on record the high sense they entertain of the services he has rendered them. 

When the danger of the mutiny of the troops at Fyzabad became imminent, ho 
came forward of his own accord and offered an asylum to all the ladies and children 
at his Fort of Shdhganj, and his offer was gladly accepted, and eight women and 
fourteen children of this party (besides three others) were sent there. 

Shortly after the emeute took place they were joined by their husbands, and 
R^jd Man Singh made arrangements to forward the whole by water to Dinapur. 

Though the party lost their money and valuables enroute, this was owing to 
an untoward accident which the Raja could not possibly have foreseen. The voyage 
on the whole has been as satisfactory as could bo expected, and free from the extreme 
misery and discomfort which other refugees have experienced. 

Without the personal aid of tho Raja, it would have been quite impracticable 
to get off such a large number of persons (29). There can bo no doubt that under 
Providence we are indebted to him for our safe passage to this place. 

G0Pj(LPt;R ; 1 


J. REID, Captain. 

The 2itk June 1857, J 


A. r. ORR, Captain. 

F. A. V. THURBURN, Capt., 




E. 0. BRADFORD, Ex. Asst. Commr, 

“ This is to certify that by the kind assistance of R^lj^ Mdn Singh, I and my 
three children, and also three sergeant s wives with their families have been protected 
and our lives indeed saved. 

When the disturbance took place at Fyzabad my husband Major Mill, Artillery, 
had made, as he imagined, every careful arrangement for tho safety of myself and 
our children, blit by some mismflmagement and untoward circumstances of which I 
know not the cause, it apj^ars be was obliged to fly without me, though he gave 
orders for me to be sent for. | and the children were hidden and placed under (on 
the night of the 7th June,) th^'J^e of a person who had promised to do everything 
th4t WM needed^ but who false to his trust, I did not get a boat till Wednesday I 

the 9th and that was through cither people's influence. I proceeded scarcely aboye a 
in^e ftpm QH% wh^%y boat im slopp^ by thw order of the sepoys of 

( 11 ) 

61^ Begiment Oudh Irregular Infantry, and several came on board and tbr^tened to 
kill me and my children unless I immediately left the boat, which I therefore was 
obliged to do. I was told that we should be killed if we remained in the station, 
and the same fate would also await me if I took another boat ; however I determin- 
ed to try if safety could be obtained by water, and engaged a small boat for which I 
had to pay 80 rupees. I was taken over to the opposite side and there again threat- 
ened with death from every one I met, as the Delhi Badshah had given orders to 
• that effect. We were then put on shore, hurriedly left there, and all my property 
left behind. I wandered from village to village with my children for about a fort- 
night, existing on the chai^ty of the villagers, when Rdjd Mfin Singh discovered the 
fact and most generously took us under his care, and has been exceedingly kind and 
attentive, providing us with all we needed, food and clothing ; and he is now about 
to send me on towards Gorakhpdr, to the charge of Mr. Osborne, by the request of 
Mr. Paterson. I most sincerely hope and trust Government will amply reward the 
RajlL for his uniform kindness to all Europeans; had Mdn Singh not protected 
us we must all have perished, and we are deeply indebted to him for his great 

Oudh : ^ (Sd.) MARIA MILL, Wife of Majob JOHN MILL, Abtillery.” 

The m July mi S 

“ Rdjd Mdn Singh has been with mo during the latter operations in Oudh, and 
was present at the attack of the enemy at the Jfind pass when two guns were taken. 
The Rdjd has behaved with his usual coolness. ’ 

He gave mo most excellent information throughout the whole period. 

Gondah : 1 (Sd.) J. HOPE GRANT, Major-General, 

The ^Oth May 1859. j Corrmariding Oudh Forced 

“ I havo pleasure in giving a certificate to Rdjd Mdn Singh who is the most influ- 
ential Landlord in Oudh, and whose history and services are well known.” 

Lucknow : 

The I5th February 1859. 



Chief Commiaaioner.’’ 

Brahmins, • • 

Koris, Kurmia and Ahfrs, 

Other castes, 

24 per cent, The distribution of races in 

29 „ this Pargana is as per margin, The residents 

” are mostly agricultural, one-half of which are 

24 » well-to-do, the other half being poor. Sixty 

per cent of the houses are tiled. 


1. Rdmpdr Bhagan, .. 

2. Aghigani 

8. Shihganj, ... 

4. Ddrdbganj 


6. Janah, 

Soult* Trade . — ^The principal Bazfirs are marginally 

• and trade is in the hands of petty dealers 

"■ 416 to have few, if any, transactions beyond 

!!! 260 limits of the Pargana. 

... 860 

> Pairs aud sAmes, — ^Thero axe three paltry annual {au;^ in this Pargana. 

( 1 ). AeUkf^hi Mozi Ptirai Birbal a fair is held for two or three days in the 
month pf Sdwan, in connexion with the feast of snakes (NigrPandani), which is 
attended by Bom himdreds Of people of the neighbourhood who go to make offerinw 
atihisshriie. • ■ ^ ; 

( M ) 

(2). SitdMnd . — In Mozi Toron Dar&bgaiy a fair is held in Eitik and Chet, 
where those of the neighbours assemble who cannot join in the larger hidf>yearly 
gatherings at AJ<ldhi& for the purpose of commemorating important events in the life 
of B&m Chander. The tradition is that Sit& offered sacrifice at this place on her 
way back from the wilds, and dug the tairk in which the pilgrims bathe to eomme* 
morate the event. 


(3.) Sitraj-fairwi.— In Mozfi Rdrapfir-Bha^ 1000 or 1200 people assemble 
hero the first Sunday after the 6th day of Bhidon, to commemorate the birth of 
the Sun. During the day salt in every shape is eschewed, and a strict fast, extending 
even to abstaining from drinking water, is maintained frofti sunset till Bun*rise the 
next morning. 


Deputy Gommmioner, and Settlement Officer, 



, >■ ■■■ 

The Pargatia of Mangalsi occupied the north-west comer of the district. Its 
northern boundary is the river Gogra ; its southern is for the most part the Marha. 
On the west its boundary is the district boundary, in part there a chain of marshes, 

• in part a ravine, at the bottom of which in the rains runs a considerable stream. On 
the east the boundary line runs down from the cantonments of Fyzabad in a south- 
westerly direction to the*Marha. 

It is perhaps the most fertile and the best cultivated pargana of the district. 

It is further well-wooded, and thes scenery, though as a rule monotonous and tame, 
is often pretty. In shape it is long and narrow. Near its western end a broad belt of 
sandy soil runs nearly across the pargana. This is as might be expected broadest 
towards the river, and the country there breaks into great swelling downs, which^ are 
an agreeable change in the prospect. Near the eastern end, a ravine, which debouches 
on the Gogra, cuts far back into the pargana, and its sides are for a considerable 
distance sandy and bleak. With these exceptions the soil is generally admirable, 
^larslics are common, tanks abundant, and in the wells water is nowhere far from the 

The pargana, as it stands, has received considerable accessions from the Par- 
ganas of Pachhainrdth and Radauli (Zillah Nawdbganj). It now consists of 126 
Mauzahs with an area of 125 square miles and a population of 84,743. 

Its remoter history is difficult to trace. But the advance into its present state 
of fine cultivation seems to have been comparatively recent. Even a century ago, so 
it appears, the middle of it, the most fertile portion, was a lakh peri^^ a forest. 

It is said that Mangalsi takes its names from Mangal Sen, a Gautam chief- 
tain, whose clan had extensive possessions on this side of the Gogra. The Gautama 
have long been driven across the river, but they have recently put in a suit for a plot 
of alluvial land below the town of Mangalsi, as the site of a former village of 
theirs. The Gautams of trans-Gogra, whom I have seen, have the very dimmest 
traditions about Mangal Sen, though they claim him as their ancestor, and they have 
disappointed me by unfulfilled promises of an enquiry from the Pandits regarding 
the ancient history of their property. It is not a little remarkable, however, that 
tlie great Bais families, who hold or held all the lands round Mangalsi, and whose 
tradition concerning themselves is of an immigration from the West two or three 
centuries ftgo, do not represent that they conquered Gautams. 11; was Bhars, whom 
according^to the village stories, they found owners of the country. The subjugation 
of Gautam Rajputs would have been a more honourable feat than the expulsion of 
Bhars, and the name would surely have been retained in the family chronicles. It fi 
true the Chauhdns of Mahauli, who are said to have arrived in the pargana * about 
the same time as the Bais, ajlege they obtained their village in dowry on the mar- 
riage of their chief to a Gautam maiden of Mangalsi. But on the other hand the 
Shaikhs, who now hold Mangalsi, have a story that Mangal Sen was only a Bhar, 
who had- a fort close by. These Shaikhs are the men of the oldest family in the par- 
gana, and they can verify traditions of a greater age than 300 years. They shewed 
me a remarkable deed and in the Naskh character, dated 760 Hiiri (1359 A. D.) 
bearing the seal of Firoz Toghlak, and appointing Muhamad Mmad Khutib in 
Mangalsi. They shewed me another with the same seat of 761 H. gonferring the 
office of Kazi on Imdm Fakrad-din'. I was shewn another of 989 H* (1681 Al D.) 
panting Shaikh Yusuf. «100 beegaha of land in Pargana Mangalsi, Sarkii 
theg^tAl^har, imd thpy hara finnans of 

( 2 ) 

jahdn of the years 1043-1050 H. giving revenue free grants to members of the 
Shaikh family. These are followed up by deeds under the seal of the Nawdb of 
Oudh, and as they were not produced for the purpose of any litigation, I have every 
faith in their authenticity. 

I am inclined therefore to believe, that if Mangal Sen was a Gautam chief and 
not a Bhar, that his possessions were confined to a few riparian villages, and that the 
town, to which ho gave his name, gave its name to the pargana, formed by the 
Mahomedau Emperors, from the importance rather of its Mahomedan proprietors 
than of its Hindtj founder. 

These traditions are not without interest in connection with Mr. Carnegy's views 
as to the relation between the Rajputs of eastern Oudh and the Bhars. 

These Shaiks of Mangalsi are the only people I have met with in the par- 
gana, who have documentary evidence of any great antiquity of family. The 
Mahomedan colonies are very few, and the Hindus, always more illiterate have 
.preserved no record of the remote past. 

Two hundred years ago, however, it seems the pargana was held almost ex- 
clusively by the great tribes of the Bais and Bisen Rajptlts. 

The Bais divide themselves into two grand families, the hlastcrn and the Western, 
who though they eat together, recognize no relationship and retain the memory of 
bitter border warfare with each other. 

The western Bais say that thirteen generations -ago Bikai Sah immigrated into 
the pargana from some place in Baiswara on the banks of the Ganges, and founded 
a village, which he named after his son, Dalan Sah, Dilwa Bhari. Dalan Sah ac- 
quired a great tract of the surrounding country, and on his death his sons. Panne, 
Bhart and Maichan, divided equally amongst themselves the thirty-six villages of his 
estate. Hence the Western Bais arc familiarly known as the Bais of the Chattis,^^ 
Bhart's descendants are the Bais of Pilkhawan, Maichan^s those of Sarangapur, 
Paund^s those of Chakwdra. But when the families had been separate for a genera- 
tion or two, they began to quarrel, and the Sarangapur men, the inhabitants of a 
vast jungle, and notorious robbers, gradually usurped the whole of Paune^s share, 
except the one miserable little village of Chakwara, all that now remains to Panne's 
sons. Bhart's family held their own, and are now in thriving circumstances. None 
of these Bais ever attained, to distinction. Mdn Sah, the fifth in descent from 
Maichan, took service at Delhi, and became a favourite of the Emperor, but it does 
not appear that he was ever advanced to particular rank, and he made no attempt to 
use his influence to the advantage of his kinsmen. Sadi Sah, another of Maichan's 
branch, constructed a fort of considerable size, at Deora kot, but I heard no special 
tradition of his valour in the clan feuds, {yide Appendix A.) 

* The Eastern Bais are of several families. The most important is that of Rae- 
pur Jal^ilpur. The head of this line was Singh Rae, the son of R^m Rae of Raepur 
in Baiswdra. He and Banbir Rae, who was probably a relation, are said to have 
settled in the east of the pargana, nearly at the same time that Bikai S6h settled 
himself in the west. The two chiefs took possession of twenty-six villages each, the 
one making his head quarters at Singhpur, the other at Banbirpur, and these Bais 
are consequently known as those of the '' Bdwan". Singh and Banbir were on the 
most friendly terns, and Singh engaged alone with the Government for the entire 
estate. For five generations, the fifty-two villages were held as one tenure, and Singh 
Rae's house grew to such greatness, that its head was called a Rdja. The last of the 
chiefs was Mdn Singh, (a name which in this part of Oudh seems to have carried 
with it infallible success). He was the eldest of four brothers. On his death, one 
of these made himself independent, but for five generations more, the three remain- ^ 

( 3 ) 

ing shares on Singh Rae's side continued united. In the time of Bandu Rae, these 
too split up, and the estate was then held in five separate blocks, till R^ja Darshan 
Singh became Chakladdr. In 1828-29, the Rdja absorbed the whole of the villages 
one after the other into his taluka, and there they remain to this day. 

At M^n Singh's death, the Banbirpdr mah^Ll was first separately engaged for. 
Banbir Rae had two sons, Rae Bas^ik and Udit Rae, [vide Appendix B.) The former 
became Mahomedau, and took the name of Bhikan Khan. These Bais say quite 
frankly, that it was the custom at that time for each Talukdar to have a son made 
Mahomedau in the hope that in the most disastrous case a bigoted Emperor might 
not wholly deprive the f^^mily of their landjj, and that in more ordinary times, they 
might have a near and certain friend privileged with the entree of the Musalman 
Courts. Many Talukdars, it is said, shewed similar caution at a more modern date 
by sending one relative to the British force, and another to the rebels, to “ mak siccar" 
of safety, much as the Highlanders did in the forty-five, whichever side might win. 

These Kh^nzadas, the Bais Mahomedans were apportioned a number of villages 
and these they still retain. The fears of Banbir Rae were perhaps not unjustified, 
but the services of the KlulnzMas were never required to enable their Ilindfi brethren 
to hold their own. On the contrary, the only use the Khanzadas ever made of any 
influence they possessed, was to usurp their kinsmen's lauds. On this occasion there 
came to the rescue of the Hindu Bais, a Kayath of Delhi, who had received an ap- 
pointment as Diwdn to the Chakladar. In gratitude for this service, the Bais present- 
cd him with the village of Gopalpur, and Copdlpur is still the property of the Di- 
wan’s descendants. 

The villages of the Banbirpur mahdl followed those of Singhpur into the ta- 
luka of Raja Darshan Singh. Those of the KhauzMas alone escaped. Several 
of them had been given in 1193H (1779 A. D.,) by Asf-ud-dowla, the Nawdb of 
Oudh, to Alam Ali, for the support of the Imambdra at Fyzabad. 

Between the estates of these two great clans of Bais lie those of two smaller ones. 

* These are the Bais of Sirhir and 


A. — Patti Uchabal. 

1. Artliar. 

2. Bamiili. 

8. Kliiiuuria. 

4, AbiiTipur. 

6. Jo^^apur. 

6. Giirlii. 

7. Gujavpur. 

8. Kaiita. 

9. Galipur. 

N, 5,— Nos. 2, 3, 4, arc in Artliar. 
Nob. 6, Q, 8, 9 in Mirpur. 
No. 7 in Mttjndwan. 

T. Pafft Jail Singh, 

1. Khirauni. 

2. Suklidwan. 

3. Gttura. 

4. KunauH. 

6. Rasulpur. 

6. Uchitimr. 

7. Sara Bishaupur. 

8. Barwa. 

9. Tandoli. 

N, .B.—No, 4 is in Majndwan. 

No. 8 in Arthar. 

No. 9 in Mirpur. 

B. — PatU Slta Mam. 

1 . Sohwiil. 

2. Khanpur. 

3. Dhurmpur. 

, 4. Madanpur. 

6. Sanurpur. 

G. Katrauli. 

7. Namaicha. 

8. Salauni. 

9. Mahomedpur. 

N. B . — Nos. 2, 5, are in Riundhi, 
Nos. 3, 4, in Mangalsi. 


1. Sirhir 

2. Narsingpur. 

8. Mokalpur. 

4. Daulatpur. 

6. Bhaipur 

6. Mohiudinpur. 

7. ‘ Mowaiya. 

8. Hunsopur. 

9. Jagirpur. 

10. Gauliania. 

11. Salauni. 

12 . ^ 

No. 2 is included in No, 1. 
No. 9 is included in No. 8, 
No. 11 is included in No. 10. 

those of Arthar. The former 
had twelve villages, the latter 
had twenty-seven. The names 
are noted on the margin, I have 
said they had villages. They are 
families of a more recent date 
than those of their great East- 
ern and Western fellow-clans- 
men. They never produced a 
man of any distinction, and 
their possessions rapidly wan^ 
ed. On every side they* los\ 
ground. ‘ Of the nine villages 
of Arthar, only four, the first 
on the list remain to their ori- 
ginal 0 w n«rs. First the Pathdns 
of Khajra, and then the Bisens 
seized all the rest, nearly a cen- 
tury ago. The Sohwal men 

retain only Sohwal. Khdnpur and Samirpur were absorbed by the Zamindars of 
Raunahi. Dharmpur and Madanpiir by the Shaikhs of Mangalsi, Namaicha 
and Salouni, the Kanungo's family took possession of. Mahomedpur was taken 
I from them by their kinsmen of Khirauni, and Katrouli Maharajah Sir Man Singh 

‘ ' ‘ ' - ,/ " < 

gave to a Brahmin friend. Similarly the Khiraud .meD lo^t their yUkges ^ the 
Kayaths and Shaikhs in the North, and to the Bisena in the South. 

To the West of these lay the Kstatc of the Bisens. The greater part of this was 
in Pargaua Pachhamrdth and the history of the clan will be given in the Pachham- 
rdth annals, but they must be noticed here for Kundarka of Mangalsi was the 
birthplace of a Bisen, who attained the greatest distinction of any native of this par- 
gana, Hindd Singh entered the service of Naw6.b Shuja-ud-dowla as a private 
soldier. He rose rapidly to the rank of Subahdar. His regiment was one of several 
sent to reduce Birjaulia, a strong fortress near Bangarmau. The siege lasted many 
days, and the Nawdb wrote impatient -letters, angry at the delay. But still Ajab Singh, 
Commandant of the Expedition, would not permit an assault. Then Hindd Singh 
with an insubordination justified by the result himself led liis regiment to the attack. 
He carried the fort at the point of the sw'ord, and, as the Bisens say, a great many 
Zamindnrs were killed^\ Hindfi Singh himself was wounded. The Nawabon liear- 
ing of this brilliant feat cashiered Ajab Singh, made Hindu Singh Captaiu^^ in his 
room, and gave him the command of seven regiments and the rank of a JarueP\ 
His brother Barjai Singh was promoted to the command of liis own old regiment, and 
from that time forth he was j)rcsent with the Nawtih^s forces in almost every action 
in which they were engaged. He fought alongside English troops in the Rohilla war 
of 1774. His descendants proudly declare that the English General admitted the en- 
tire credit of the victory (at Babul Nullah ?) to rest with him, although the fact is the 
native troops wTre not advanced till the close of the battle, and Colonel Champion 
complained, ‘‘We have the honour of the day, and these banditti tlie profit. The 
services of Hindu Singh, however, were handsomely rewarded, and the Nawah gave 
him the rcvenue-frcc tenure of Xapasi and Lakhauri, two of the richest villages in 
the pargana. 

Asf-ud-daulah held him in as high esteem as his hither. There is a story that 
Asf-ud-dowla was shooting near Butwal in Nepal. A tiger came out of the forest 
straight in front of the Nawal/s elephant. Hindu Singh, who was near by, drew off 
tlie tiger by making his elephant lie down, and as the tiger attacked him, sliced it in 
two with one sweep of his scimitar. The astonished and djlightod Nawab presented 
the valorous General with his own elephant. Hindu Singh in the excitement did 
not lose his self-possession, and promptly suggested that a grant of land would be use- 
ful for the support of so huge a beast. And the Nawab directed that he should hold 
thenceforth free of revenue his village of Uchitpur. 

Under Wazir All Khan, and Saddat All Khan, Hindu Singh remained in the 
possession of his honours and dignities, but he seems to have withdrawn from active 
life. His brother Baryar Singh, commanded at the siege of Mundrdsan and took the 
fort. Soon after, Hindd Singh died and was succeeded by his son, Bdja Mddho 
Singh, who seems to have led a simple country life, and is familiarly remembered as 
Jhe Siwde Sdhib. ” He and his family held two Subabddris. Their estate was in 
liazur Tahsil. In 1843 it was finally absorbed in the great Talukd of Rdja Bakb- 
tdwar Singh. * Kapdsi and Uchitpdr, are held by Sir M da Singh revenue-free till 
the revised settlement, and Lakhauri revenue-free for life. 

On the NorthTWest of the pargana, are the possessions of two Chauhfin families^ 
MahauH, Dhaurahra, Barai Kaldn and Rdmnagar. Both families assert that they 
come from a place called Bhuinganj or Bhuinnagar iu Maiupdri, and they consider 
themselves of m^ich purer and higher family than the Chauhdns of the great southern 

f BlIuaBakhtawArSingli, soi B4js Dsmlum Singh, lECdrmi, ware also instMicef in tkk distil, 

of soldiers of fprtime. l!he fpmdr lifd as a trooper in the old ^th {{tight Cavaliy, the latter as 

a fioavmoh day labourer. Both attiacted'we notion df Hawib Sa&dst A2f fiihsil, aa aomirsr of ftne.phya^ne 
and a^ his entbronoment by tts 0haai-ddr4&v his newly ao^giied royal nowwi fcfoei ] 

and two others; ^ ' 

family of tio» district of 565 villages. They marry their sons in the east among the 
Bais of Kotsardwan, the Bale of the Chaurdsi of Salehpdr Saraiya near ShAhganj, 
and also the Gautams of trans-Gogrd. Their daughter* they marry, in the west to 
Ponwirs, the Chamargaurs of Amethia, Sfirajban*, and Raikhwfira. The family-tree 
of these Chauhdns is given in an Appendix. * The men of Dhaurahra give themselves 
much the most ancient lineage. Their ancestor, Nfigmal or 
• Appenda 0. Nfigchand, is said to have got the villages, which his family 

now hold, on his marriage with a Kalhans maiden, but I can find no other tradition 
of Kalhans possessions in the pargana. N^graal settled at Dhaurahra, and on his 
death the villages were'diVided among his grand-sons, Dhaurahra falling to Mahma 
Sdh, Barai to Rim DisS>, and Rimnagar to Narain Dass. The ancestor of the 
Mahauli men again is said to have acquired his property here by marriage into the 
Gautam family of Mangalsi. His descendants have, besides Mahauli, two neighbour- 
ing villages in the Nawibganj district, Firozpur and Misri. 

These Rijpfit tribes formed the chief proprietary of the pargana. Several iso- 
lated settlements were made by Mahomedans and others, but the Rijpfits were ,80^ 
predominant that it will bo sufficient to mention them in the notes I have to give on 
the villages of the pargana. The tribes retained their possessions, one as against 
the other, with singularly little change. On the west they are still Independent pro- 
prietors. On the east 68 villages have been absorbed into the vast estate of Sir Man 
Singh, and the clansmen have been reduced for the most part to the position of cul- 
tivators holding at a privileged rate. 

On the extreme west of the pargana is Sthbar, a Mahomedan 

Note, on the village, of the SO*”® 300 years ago by one Sib Alam, an immi- 

pargana. grant from the western colonies of Nawdbganj. He had two 

sonS; Syad Alam and Syad Mahrum, whose houses still stand, 
but in the decay which has befallen the fortunes of a family now too numerous to be 
comfortably supported by their slender property. The town is mean and dirty, standing 
on the miry slope that trends into the Gogrd alluvium. To the south-west, however, 
is the iuteresting little village of Begamganj. It was founded by the Bahu Begam at 
the entrance to her fief-domains. A bridge in excellent repair, built by Tikait Rde, (the 
famous Diwdn, whose Tikaitnagar with its broad avenues and lofty walls is still the 
most striking town in the Nawabganj district,) spans a picturesque stream, the boundary 
of the two districts. The Queen mother built iu the hamlet a mosque and well, which 
are now overshadowed by a uoblc banyan tree ; near it she laid out a garden, with 
light gate- ways at its main-entrances. Withering sisara trees still mark the ancient 
walls, but coarse arhar and rank weeds have usurped the place of marigolds and rosea, 
and the sumfner house in the middle has lost its roof, and the fruit-cellars are black- 
ened by the fires of the field watchmen. 

It is here, that the old Lucknow road enters the Fyzabad district. Flanked* by * 
ruins at almost every turn, it is interesting throughout its whole course, and the shade 
of its many avenues brings it to this day to be more frequented by native travellers, 
than the adjoining British highway. There are bazdrs at every second or third milci 
and the traffic along it in former days must have been more considerable, than one is 
at first disposed to believe. The number of wells that dot its side is astonishing. 
They seem to have been all constructed by private liberality. The natives, reveren- 
cers of “dastur/^ say they do not care to spend their means on the iiaprovertient of 
aroute which has not received the-sanotio^ of ancient use. • Comparing however this 
rough bullock-track, (for to our notions it is hardly more), with what I hare seen 
of the Grand trunk Soad, thew seems to be W)me deeper reason for the falling off in 
|fhe public spirit and liberality of thb treB-to-do rustics. Perhaps the British 
run top s^igh^^^ suit the little and shop-keepers will not 

6 ) : V 

a road, which brings no travellers past their doom. Perhaps tdo in the keener race 
for wealth under a strongly pacific Government, the pHmitive generosity rapidly 

After leaving Begamganj, the old road enters the mauzah of Dhaurahra, in 
which there is a large baz^r called Mahomed pdr. On the outside of the town, em- 
bowered in woods, is a gateway of handsome proportions, said to have been built by 
Asf-ud-dowla, who was struck by the beauty of the place when on his way to shoot 
at the Bakra jhil. On the other side is a very ancient Hindu shrine, shaded by a 
magnificent grove of tamarind trees. The tradition is that, there was a well there 
from time immemorial. There was a jungle round the well, It was twelve koss from 
Ajfidhia— a mystic-stage—and MahMeo lived there. Certain fakirs on their journey 
to Ajudhi^ conceived the design of removing Mahadeo, and exhibiting him for gain, 
like the relic-scllcrs of the middle ages. So by night they began to dig him out, 
(his body was in the earth), but as they dug, his head retreated into the ground, and 
in horror they fled. In the morning the neighbours came to worship, and beheld 
^thQ wonder. Chitai Sah, a devout merchant of Mitb;irakganj, built a dome over 
the sacred spot, and not to be outdone Girdluiri Shah, another merchant, but of 
Rdranaggar, surrounded the dome with a masonry platform and lofty walls. It is sadly 
in ruins and the neighbours are not now sufficiently pious to put it in repair. 

Beyond this is the mauzah of Hajipdr. In the middle of it the road reaches a 
hamlet, known both as Begamganj and as Urnarpilr. The Begam Sahib Imped to 
establish a bazar there, and she furnished it with a gateway at each entrance. But 
the gateways seem to have never been completed. The domes that crowned it were 
plastered, and the w'ork stopped. The arches have fallen in, and the structures have 
hastened to a premature decay. The hamlet is all ruinous. The most pretentious of 
the houses belonged to one Dal Singh, who made a great fortune in the Meerut Dis- 
tillery, and removed his family there, leaving the paternal mansion to the care of an 
old woman. A number of eunuchs live in this place, and they built a mosque seventy 
years ago, which they keep in excellent repair. On the west of the village is a very 
old mosque in complete ruin. It is known as that of Pir Khwaja Hasan, whose grave 
adjoins it. The fakir in charge declares the Pir belonged to Syad Salar^s army, but 
the well beside the mosque, which is still in good order, is said to bo of the 
same date. A fanjdar, whose name has passed from the memory of the living, lies 
buried near by. 

Between this and Raumihi there are two small bazars, Mubarakganj and Aliganj, 
but in these there is nothing of note. Near Sunaha arc numerous tombs, declared 
by the Mahomedans to be the graves of soldiers of Syad Saldr, the invader of Oudh 
in 1030 A. D. The Musalmans of Oudh, are, however, apt to associate with Syad 
Saldr every object or tradition of antiquity, to which they can ascribe no\ccrtain ori- 
gin. This road abounds with alleged mementoes of the Princess march. As it pass- 
es out of the sandy knolls which mark the country in the environs of Raundhi, it 
‘conies upon an old mosque shrouded in thorns, and the tombs of two martyrs, 
Aulia Shahid and Makan Shahid, reposing under the shade of a far-spreading ban- 
yan. The men of Raundhi will not pass this way after" night fall. They say that by 
night the road is thronged with troops of headless horsemen, the dead of the army of 
Prince Syad Saldr, The vast array moves on with a noiseless tread. The ghostly 
horses make no sound, and no words of command are shouted to the headless host. 

But when the last of the dread spirits has passed by, the Jinns, who frequent the 
gloomy mosque, rush to the close of procession with unearthly shrieks, and the 
‘ townsmen, awo-s thick aSfthey listenl ^^er in terror at their hearths. ^ ' 

' ' ' . "T' 

' ^unfthi », wd baa for some l)«cn, the principal toirn of the pargwia. It 
isri^i^Tp inil^s ftoia/F^Stehadj tod there ia an enoamping ground to the soutL Itf 
hAve eoloalzed 1)7 i>ffltlen ftom SOib^, hnt iiia 


by ii 8^^ oi flwpKeaiv The priaciji^al owHew are relatiotis of the Shaikhs 

ofMangalai whotft I have already mchtioned, but it is not very clear how they ac- 
quired their rights. The Kayaths, the family of the Pargana Kanungoes, who own 
a third, are in the 14th generation from Khw4jfi Mdn Sdh, who purchased his share 
from the Syad colonists. A family of Khattris, the only one I have met in the 
pargana, has had a small share for eleven generations ; the Pathdus of Salehpur 
usurped ( it is said ) another ; and Mir Ahmad All, a complete stranger to the town, 
has recently acquired another. There are four maifl tenures in Raun^hi, all of old 
standing, but small extent, granted to fakirs or servants of the Nawdbs, while Pyza- 
bad was the capital. Under the kings an amil was stationed at Raundhi, and part of 
his official residence is now made use of as a police post. Far out on the west of the 
town an Idg^lh still stands, whicli was built by one of the amils of Asf-ud-dowla's 
time, and in Sukhdwan, there is a ‘^purwa,^' which bears the name of another, 
but these officers were so frequently changed, that even the names of few of them are 
recollected, and still less their personal characters. 

A couple of miles east is Mangalsi. On the ancient traditions regarding-thw 
place I have already commented. Its Shaikh proprietors are not in very flourishing 
circumstances, and the town has now for many years lost its position as the chief 
place in the pargana. It has an Idgah of the last century, and an Iradmbar^, to 
the support of which a cousiderable tract of land has been released by the Govern- 
ment in rent-free tenure. The town overlooks the river from a lofty cliff", and the 
vicinity is seamed with ravines. The old road keeps well to the south. It crosses 
one of tlie nalas by a bridge built by Turdb All, Diwdu of the Bahu Begam, one 
end of which however lately fell partially in. 

Passing through the Mauzahs of Ibrahimpur and Firozpur, wiiich betpng to 
cadets of the Mangalsi family of Shaikhs, the road comes up close to the new 
metalled highway near Jalalabad. Between the two roads stand the ruins of a mos- 
que, known as Piruagar. It is said, that twelve generations ago, All Khan, a Risal- 
dar at the Court of Delhi, taking some umbrago made off* with his troops to this part 
of the country, which was then in the kingdom of Jaunpur. A detachment of the 
imperial army was sent in pursuit of him, and he took refuge with Jiis men in a jungle 
at the foot of the hills near Atraula in the Gonda District. He was there surround- 
ed and killed. A thousand of his men, they say, shared his fate, but his son got the 
Zaraindari of the Pargana of Atraula by sycophancy to the Padshfili ; his descendants 
are still powerful proprietors there. llisDafadar, JaMl Khan, founded Jaldlabad. A 
Pirzfid^ Officer of his Corps built the mosque of Pirnagar, and another mosque 
was built at Kot Sarfiwan close by in honour of five brothers, Rissalddrs in his force, 
who were killed there in a battle. In the village of Jalalabad, tbe^e is a crumbling 
tomb of iv'usual size, said to have been erected to the memory of the wife of Syad 
Nauroz Xli, but no descendants of the Syad, or of any of a band of settlers, which 
must have been numerous, now survives in the neighbourhood. ^ 

A short distance beyond Pirnagar, and on the very border of the high road, is 
the mosque of the ** Panj-bhaiyd^^, which has just been mentioned. It is in excellent 
preservation. Inside the enclosure are the graves of the five brothers, and an upright 
decagonal monolith of coarse stone, said to be in honour of their mother, a most 
uncommon form of tomb stone in this part of the country. On the western side are 
the lemains of a large masonry platform, flanked by heavy pillars, which is^called a 
Ganj-Shahid'^ the burial-place of Mdsalmdn warriors, killed in action. The 
Villagers state curiously enough^ that the battle in whioh^these men fell, a battle 
with the Shar9. As the village took its name of ATo^^Sarawao'' frotn its being the . 
head-quarters of the ^ais estate or Tappa of 52 villages, it would mm to follow : i 
that the immigsatinn.df ^ the Kahomedan, soldiers who fought the and f 

At the next milestone is the village of MutiiitSxiiagar. ^ere i$ ah old mosque 
there also; bhilt by Mumt^z Khdn, a Path^n of the west country. None of hi! des* 
cendauts are alive, and no one knows anything about him/ but even, the Hindds of 
the place regard the building with reverence. They put their foreheads to the stones 
on entering it, and a Bh^t who has recently come to the village, religiously lights it 
on feast-nights. An inscription in stone ^ over the postal tears the date 1025,^^ 
[1616 A. D., time of Jahangir.] The mosque is dilapidated, but like most of these 
ancient buildings had been. very strongly constructed of kankar blocks. 

Over the trees one sees from this, on the south, the dome of Tdjpur Makbard. 
The Pathdns of Tdjpur are a very small and poor family, but they trace their des- 
cent to one Jaradl Khan, who, they say, came to Oudh some 450 years ago, and was 
^ven a subah of a great many villages. These have been absorbed in other estates, one 
by one, and the only village now left to the family is that of Tdjpur. The Makbard 
contains the tombs of the father and immediate relatives of Jamdl Khan, and is in 
very good preservation under the care of a fakir, but the graves of Jaradl Khan him- 
self and his wife stand apart, open and ruinous. The Pathans have a maafi sanad 
for 200 bigahs in favour of Mussaraat Aziz Khatum, descendant of Jamdl Khan,^^ 
of the date 1084 Fusli, ( 1687 A. D. ) It is of the time of Aurangzib, but the seals 
are illegible. Kapur Singh of Raepur built a fort in Tdjpur, and the Pathdns, 
though so long independent proprietors, still pay the feudal tribute of ‘^bhent^Mo 

the Bais headmen. 


At Mumtdznagar, near the remains of a gateway, the old road and the new 
join. Tombs and bazdrs still mark the line of the old thoroughfare. At Abu Sarai it 
passes into the cantonments of Fyzabad. 

These notes have almost insensibly taken the form of one of the itineraries, so 
commonly prepared for tourists in Europe, but indeed except on the borders of the old 
highway, there is not much in the pargana to attract attention or require notice. 
My further notes are almost wholly on the exceptions to the Rajput domination in the 
ownership of the villages. 

The zaminddrs of Abu Sarai are partly Gautams, kinsmen of those trans-Gogra , 
and partly Syads of an old family, declared to be descended from a Mir Abu, who got 
a grant in the time of Ald-ud-din Ghori” ( 1156 A, D.) They have no old deeds, 
and it is not a little remarkable, that these men too pay bhent'* to the Bais, not- 
withst/inding the decline of that clan. * 

Ghdtampur, a poor and sandy mauzah, was given entirely in revenue free- 
tenure by the Nawdb Asf-tid-dowla to Manauwar Ali Khan, PathAn of Chirra, a 
scholar of repute, and the grant has teen continued by the British Government to 
his descendants in perpetuity. 

h The neighbouring villages of Easdlpur and Bhitaura were also giyen by Asf^ 
l^dpjrla iu teymM fw-tenure. These are fineli^lageSi forianate, 

&ypttr w|ii Alam AlSu rnMogBi, had sotted in Fyimbadr 

with th|^ m th^ eit^jf and^^^ 

^ait the poor, tile if the rents #em ever verf rigidly demoted 

to the purpom for irhich tb^ irefo .intend^i e^d the grant has been resumed* 

Bhafpur, though long in the hknd of the Bais> is said to have belonged origi- 
nally to the ancestors of Syad Bdstam AU, who is still resident there. They are said 
to have founded the village 300 years ago, and the remains of their fort are still 

Mohiuddinpur and Sukhdwan are Bais villages, but held by SankaldipSi 
to whom they were given forty years ago by their great kinsman the Rdja of Shfi,h- 
ganj. Panditpur is another Brahmin village, a remarkably fine one, but the Pandd 
owners have had it for two centuries in gift-from their Bais disciples. 

KauU is the property of a Mahomedan family. The present headman, 
ShamshudJin, states himself to be in the L3th generation from Makhdum Sham- 
shuddfn, a native of Samnun, who was given a grant in the Zamiuddri of 
KhiraunP^ in the time of Jahangir. A festival is held yearly at the tomb of 


Nasirpur Oarha is also a small village belonging formerly to the Khiraunf 
Bais. It was sold to the ancestor of the present Kayath Maafiddr a hundred years 
ago, and was shortly after granted to him revenue free by Shah Alam, Emperor 
of Delhi, for services as Chaudhri of the Pargana. This grant was confirmed 
by the Nawab Vazir, and was continued by the British Government for the life of 
the incumbents. 

Lalepur Namaicha was another Bais village, but was long held as a Maafi 
by a Pande family, and then seems to have been taken forcible possession of on the 
death of the Bahu Begam by Hasn Ali Khan, alias Shahin Khan, a Risdjddr in 
her service. This man was a Pathan of Delhi, and his family, though resident in 
this sequestered villlage, still keep up communication with the ancestral house, 
marrying there and giving in marriage. 

Shaikhpur. is held partly by Shaikhs, partly by Pathans. The former are 
descended from one Habibullah, who came to Oudh from Agra in the train of a 
Subahdar. The Subahdar dying Habibullah lost his post. (He had married in 
Sihbar and bought a plot of land.) Then entering the service of the Rdja of 
Hasnpur, he went as his Agent to Delhi. There he made money, and adding 
several additional plots from Gopmdthpur, Lakhori and Raundhi, made of 
them this mauzah. The Pathans trace their origin to Kdli Pahdr, who is said to 
have been a Subahdar, and to have died in Lucknow. His tomb is believed to exist 
there still and to be marked by a tree, the eastern side of which gives sweet fruit, 
the western bitter, but his descendants admit they have not had the curiosity to 
search it, 6ut. On his death his son, Abu Said settled in Pura,'' which is 
under British arrangements now part of the Mauzah of Shaikhpur. These Pathans 
have two Maafi sanads, both of the fourth year of the reign of Aurangzrfr 
(1662 A. D.) and under that Emperor's Seal. 

Gopfndthpur with Silanni and Shaffipur belongs to the family of Girdhar 
Dds, They cannot or will not explain how they came by this property, but it is an 
old story, for I have seen a sub-deed in his favour of a village in Pargana Pach. 
hamrdth, 211 years old. These Kayaths got one of the Kauungoships of the Par- 
gana, irhich brought them a NinkfLr allowance of Bs. 800 to Rs. 1800 aecoi^g 
to .the t^per of the authority of the day. To their position it was pw>h*bly, dw 
theft TiU^ dM not fallow thoee of their neighbpttr^ittto the Sh^hganj 4^ , i 

. ^ ftmiliee, proprieton of Iw^in thU nni^tihwhod^^^^ 

the Eanungo af Bias! in ' 4 " ooanttc^i^n ‘bjr tn^rilkge oi tbe 

Kayaths of Harbandanpur in tbi9 P&i|;at}a. Since then tbe fainily b^ acquired 
by purchase a share in Sandha^ and one 6t two other Villages. In Niw&da there is a 
burial-place of a religious secti originated a century add a half' ago by jagimau 
Dds, a Chattri Fakir of Kotwa in Nawdbganj. The sect is called Sathnimi/^ 
as worshippers of the True Word/^ (sach nim.) and its chief peculiarity is the 
precept which enjoins burial of the dead. In this part of the country its adherents 
are very few, and these, I believe, are wholly Kayaths. 

Uchitpur once Bais became Bisen, and was then given to the present Brahmin 
holders some 40 years ago. It still boasts of its Bisen fort.^ 

Similarly the Upadhia owners of Gaura, and the Misrs of Misrauli were 
given their respective villages by the Bais. 

Baidrapur the Kayaths acquired from the Bisens, who had succeeded the Bais. 

. Lahrapur belongs to Chaubd Brahmins, and the adjoining villages of Tahsin- 
pur and Budhauli to Pandes. These tenures probably originated like that of 
Pranapur, which was a gift to Prana Dube from the Pilkhawan Bais, in the religious 
generosity of Rajput owners. The river villages of Sandha, Kaldparpur, and 
Thareru are all held by these Pandes, whose priestly functions naturally gathered 
them on the hank of the Sarju. In Kalaparpur there is a Bhar fort, which they 
strengthened to resist the Bais. Misfortune, however, so steadily attended them 
there that in despair they dismantled the place, and erected a new fort on the 
present village-site. 

Bhar forts as they are called, are common in the pargana. A list is annexed 
of the villages in. which they occur. They are in general sim- 
ply rounded mounds, more or less lofty, strewn with broken 
brick. The mounds appear to be in the main artificial, and 
their area is never large. If the dwellings of the Bhars were 
confined to the mound, the population of that day must have 
been very scanty. This is hardly consistent with the revenue 
returns of Akbar^s reign for the neighbourhood, and yet 
according to the corroborative accounts of tbe Mjput tribes, 
the Bhars were dominant till Akbar's time. Impressed however with that idea, and 
finding it hard to believe that a small population living on an exuberant soil could 
have lived in a state of constant strife, I conceived that the mounds were possibly 
constructed as a sanitary precaution against the malaria of a region of marshes and 
forests. The theory is scarcely justified by the position of some of the mounds 
with which I became acquainted, but however this may be, there can be^ no doubt a 
great change has taken place in the habits of the people since the days of the mound 
makers. Brick strongholds have been succeeded by clay huts, and, as in the case of 
Kal^iparpur, the people have formed the notion that evil and misfortune haunt the 
dwelling places of their forerunners. It is strange how the name of the Bhars 
should have adhered to places that now know them no more. It is the universal 
assertion of the people, that the Bhars have entirely disappeared out of the land. 
The story of the Bhars is singular because it is so inexplicable and interesting, because 
80 singular. Where are they ? Who were they ? Their works remain but these 
give little light. Their mounds are not like those of Assyria which wrap entire cities 
in their sheltering sand, nor evnn like the barrows of the Celts, where the dead were 
entombed, equipped with ^e implements of the living for tW happy hunting ^und 
iJm second earth, , 

Tillage; Has been for ninety yeaia by the 

ttif->a-.fonaer W 'iaiinfe.‘toir'ite8iilBnt.i^^ 





Ibrahfmpur, Kandai, 

Deora Kot. 




■■ -v ■■■'.' '"'r - , ■ i‘ 

w a xii^Mch tent^free hy Snjah-ud-dowla ta 

Mdnd GoU^ip, Kajfath ot Jt ii to be a holy spot, as the 

jtmcUott of the Saijfi Gogni Hrew, and a fair is held there at the full mooa of 
Piis* This is the only fairin the feargana, and is not very largely attended. 

Sarai Ndmd is partly Kayath partly Bais by a recent purchase. Gondwd too 
was Kayath, but the proprietary family died Out. The last of the Kayaths had a 
Tiwdri agent, Rdpi Jordwan, of Sarw^r in Gorakhpfir, to whom the village eventually 
fell. His descendants living there call themselves the zaminddrs, but the village has 
been for ninety years under the wing of the Mustafabdd Saiyads, and the settlement 
has been made with thfe latter. 

Dakhanpard is now a Bais village, but a family of Tiwdris claim it as their an- 
cestral and original property. They allow that Rholipdrd, the southern portion of the 
mauzah belonged originally to the Bais, but there seems to have been a considerable 
settlement of Tiwdris in this neighbourhood. Diwai is still held by Tiwdris, and the 
adjoining tract, known as the Rampur grant, contains the remains of village re- 
membered as Benipur, and said to have belonged 200 years ago to Tiwdris Brahmans. 
The only trace of it now is a mound of bricks in a dense jungle, 

Mau is a Sukal village. It was given to Ghansdm Sukal by the Bisens, five 
generations ago, 

Kotdih is in the estate of Chaudhri Ghuldm Frid, who is alleged to hold by 
purchase from Pathans, These consequently he calls the first owners, but the Bisens 
are everywhere said to have preceded them. 

In Dholi Askarn there are interesting ruins of an enormous fort. Bastions of 
commanding licight, crowned by banyan trees of great size and age, overlook a deep 
moat. The people point out the old parade-ground, and the stables, and the women*s 
apartments, but further than that it was built 200 years ago by a chakladdr, Mdtha 
(kayath) G dr Baksh, they cannot tell. How long the fort was held, what became 
of his family, wliether his successors lived there, no one seems to know. 

In Bhdwannagar too there is said to have been a fort. The line of the ditch is 
shewn, and the people say tliat there were a dilP’ and a well there within the memory 
of mau, but not a brick remains. This fort belonged to a 
family of Pathdns, who appear to have acquired a small estate 
of five villages ^ from the Biseiis in the last century. Allah- 
pur is is the only village still in their hands. They have 
papers shewing they held these lauds in fief a hundred years ago. 

Allah pilr. 





MfisfaTabdd is a thriving town with a large population of weavers. On the 
south, sepaiated from the town by a marsh, and standing in lonely bleakness, is an 
ancient masjid said to have been built by Syad Bar6 the founder of the town. (Th* 
town is sometimes called Baragaon. ) Twice a year, on the two Ids the Syads*go to 
their ancient mosque to pray, but their customary resort is a masjid of new fashion, 
which with an Im&mbMh and handsome house Syad Didfir Jahlin built here towards 
the close of native rule. Another mosque of a century’s standing is being put in 
repair by the weavers. The most noted native of the place was B4kar Ali, who was 
Darogah of the Princes’ Palace in Lucknow m 1830-40. He retired with a fortune, 
and became the head of the Hahontedans of the pargana. He obtained the 
engagement of severiil of their villages, and was teTenue surety for others in the 
'flasSriSdiifl.-' ' 

2aar of Mahomedpur in which there ia a Mohalla of dyers. The markets are 
merous but chieiy of agricultural prodaeOi with a list of them I close my notes on 
the pargana. 


Begaraganj in Mowaiya, 
Suchitaganj in Khiraunee, 
Beora in Kundarka^ 
Pilkb^wan (built this year)^ 
Beora Kot (recent), 
Mahomedpur in Bhaurdhra, 

10/A September 1868. 

Saturday and Tuesday. 
Saturday and Wednesday. 
Monday and Thursday. 
Tuesday and Friday. 
Sunday and Wednesday. 
Satur,day and Tuesday. 
Sunday and Wednesday. 

Assistant Settlement Officer, 


The Bais of the Chattia dictated their family tree, from which I take two lines, 
to show the generations : — 

Bikat S^n. 

2 Balan Sah. 


Bhart. Paune, 




Gur Sahd«. 



Goudim Sdh, 


6 . 




Jagar S^h. 



BuUr Bli^lre. 





1 ^ 

Kesri Singh. 


Klidn Sail. 


8 . 


Badli Singh. 


Man Sdh. 




Jauni Singh. 



Bhopat Sah. 



Faliir Singh. 


Jagal Sah. 




Sadlio Singh. 


Dewa Sah. 



1 ^ 

Baklan Singh. 


Jaran Sdh. 




Guyadin Singli, living. 


Ajabf Sail, 

I'l. Mduji Singh. 

15. Bodan Singh, 


16. Chatur Singh. 

17. Ramballi Singh, living. 

The villages apportioned to the three sons of Dalan Sdh were the following 

A. Bhart.—\. Pilkhfiwan. 2. Sahrejpdr. 3. Sagunpfir or Aliganj. 4. 

luayatpdr or Gokla. 5. Barwa. 6. Theonga. 7*. Bhawanipur. 8. Gaui'at 

9. Bhartdpdr. 10. Baidrapur. 11. Manjhaura Kalan. 12. Harbanspdr or 

Misrauli. Nos. 2, 3 and 4 are now included in Pilkhdwan. 

B. ilfaicAaw.— Maichan had two sons, Midn Silh and Gondan Sah. The former 

got 1. bdjipdr, 2. Bharseri. 3. Asogipdr. 4. Huthipdr. 5. Derd Musi, 

6. Dilwa Bh^lri. The latter got 7. Pirkauli. 8. Kotdih. 9. Rukupd^ 

10. Deord. 11. Kotwdh. 12. Bhadfiwl Nos. 2, 3 and 4 are now ineJuded 
in Hijipdr. No. 8 in Sarangapdr itself, a village of comparatively recent formation, 
and No. 12 in Deora Kot. 

C. Pflttwe.— 1. Sonri. 2. Chakwfirfi,. 3, Tandua. 4. RohlL 5. 

DakhanpM. 6. Bahram. 8. Bhawiniapfir. 9. Manjhaura Barka, and three 
others, vrhose names are lost. No. 4 is now in mauzah Sarangapdr. Nq. 7i in 
Dakhanp&ri. No. 9, in Karerd. 


The genealogical tree of the Bais of the 

Singh Rae. 

2. Bas^k Rae. 

3. ITjd^ar Rae. 

4. Harki Rae, 


j ; ’ i I ^1 

Man Singh. 6. Kapdr Singh. Raman Rae. Kharg Ri 

6. Sagar Roe. 

7. Baa Doo. 


8. Mardan Singh. 

9. Suntokh Rae. 


10. Baadwan Singh. 

11. Bliika Singh. 

13, Siibha Singh. 

13. Shoobakkas Singh. 

14. Autar Singh. 

15. Naipal Singh, living. 

BAwau” is thu% 

BANBfB Rae, 



Rae llaanik or Bhi'« 

2. l/ditRoo. 

kan Klidn. 



3. Poddm Rae. 

8. Pahdr Khdn. 

^ 1 


4. Bagh Rae. 



Husain Khdn. 


6. Malkhan Rae. 


Jamal Khan. 


6. Bulla Rao. 


Baz Khdn. 


7. Balan Rae. 


Durvesh Khdn. 


8. Holi Rao. 


Pirbak.8h Khan. 


0. Khtindi Rae. 


Ramzan Khan. 


10. Phatte Rao. 


Jahangir Khdti, 

11. 11 ul a Rae. 


Basiiwan Klidn. 



12. Inoha Rae. 


Hasn Ali Khan, 


13. Zillim Rae. 

13. Dnlmir Klian. 


^ 1 

14. Hanunmn Rae. 


Mubtafa Khan, 


15. Kallut Rao. 


GJiazafar Klidn, 

^ 1 


10. Nadir Rao, living. 

Tlie 2G villages of Singh llae’s family were the following : — 

1. Raepur. 2. Jalalpur. 3. Kotsarliwau. 4. Wallipur. 5. Mana- 
pur. 6. Khargphr. 7. Singhpur. 8. H.'ijipfir. 9. Mhintaznagar. 10. 
Bhikanpur. 11. SurjbhSnpur. 12. Gaura. 13. Mahmudphr. 14. Kondra. 
15. Bubu Sarai. 10. Narainpdr. 17. Toghpfir. 18. Khaipdr, 19. Sairon. 
20. Misrauli. 21. SariAwaii. 22. GopAlpur. 23. Harhipdr. 21. KhAnpur 
25. Halle. 26. Hadi. 

The 26 villages of Banhir Rae’s family were : — 

1. Banbirpdr. 2. Mirzapur. 3. MumtAznagar. 4. Rashlpdr. 5. 
Udanpdr. 6. Ilaripur, 7. Saraiyan. 8. JalAlabad. 9. Fathpdr. 10. 
‘iHubarakpur. 11. Salarpdr. 12. Chirra Mahomedpfir. 13. Jaganpdr. 14. 
Salempdr. 16. Anna. 16. Bhitaura. 17. GhAtampfir. 18. Raalilptir 
SakrAwal. 19. Parsauli. 20. Taksarra. 21. Niaii. 22. BhikAr^lir. 23. 
Hernapfir. 24. Phfilri. 25. KAsipfir. 26. Pimagar. 

To these each family adds three MAnjha villages, all of which are now comprised 
iB“MAnjhaKalan,"war., of the Baepfir MahAl. TAjpfir. Chandanpdr and Ba*ft. 
pdr, ofthe Banblrpdr MahAl. Saadatpfir. Bhaironpdr and MAnjha Kalan. 

^ ^ ^ the above list, now in pargm Mangabi, be. 

’‘' ^originaUy toparganaPac^W^^ are still in the latter 


Lineags of Obouh&u of PJifWolira, 

7Bgar Peo> 
M^nil Chand. 
Mundhr&j Doo. 
Pirlhipdl Deo. 
Bisain Deo. 

Harcingh Doo. 
Bir Singh Deo. 
Pirthiraj Doo. 







Malima Daas. 

Narain Dass. 



Zohang Rae. 

Badle Does. 


Sabal Sdh. 

Kharg Son. 


QopiU Sill. 

Midai MaU 


Maluk Sill. 

Ban Sdh. 



Chain Singh. 

1 ^ 

Alap Sdh. 



Sowak Singh. 

Din Singh. 


Oayadm Singh. 


Ausdii Singh. 



Mohbi Singh, 

Bahadur Singh. 


Gangabakas Singh. 

Maliadeo Singh. 

Siirju Singh. 

Nauranga Singh. 

Lineage of ChauMns of Mahauli. 

SiWAB Singh. 

Mohram Sdli 
^ Bthj*Mal. 

Sdo, <&o. 


Isram Sdh, &c. 

Pars Singh. 
0angd Singh. 
Daiuudhar Singh. 
Parmodh Singh. 
Bdjdh Singh* 
Tikaii; Singh- 
Bhilai Singh. 

, MoKtI Singh* 

Bhdp Hal. 

Bam Ddss, &c., 

Hismm Sdh, kc. 


In other printed reports I have already shown that many of the Rajpdt colonies 
of Eastern Oudh of modern times are descended from the so-called Bhars, who held 
universal sway in these parts at the Mahomedan advent. I have also shown that the 
Bais tribe of Rajpdts, excluding perhaps the Tilokchundi family, is that through 
which entry into orthodox Hinduism was most easily effected. 

This report by an independent officer 'is very stronglyxonfirmatory of my ideas 
on this subject. 

The pargana is over-run by different independent Bais colonies, the members 
of which say that they came from the west, no one knows from where, and expelled 
the Bhars, two or throe centuries, or according to their pedigree tables, about six- 
teen generations ago. 

There are traditions of a Gautam (Sombuns) colony founded by Mangal Sen, 
from whom the pargana takes its name, who is said to have been a cadet of the 
great Fathpur house of Argal. But the Gautams were long ago pushed over the 
river Gogra. 

It is noteworthy that the Mahomedans who produce sanads more than 300 years^ 
old, declare tliat Mangal Sen was not a Gautam, but a Bliar. Anotlicr noteworthy 
thing is that both the Mahomedans, and the few Gautams that are left, are shown by 
Mr. Woodburn in this report, to pay the feudal tribute of hheiit to the Bais hcad- 
men.^^ How long they may have done so, is not very clear. 

The conclusions to be drawn from these notes arc as follows : — 

(1). The local Bais are tlie indigenous Bhars. (2). The Bhars became Bais 
about or after the Mahomedan conquest. (3). The Gautam footing was by marriage 
with the Bais. (1). The Mahomedans succeeded the Bais-Bhars. • ’ 

Officiating Commissioner, 


Introductory The pargana Amsin has an area of 68,311 acres, of 

which 42,643 acres are cultivated, 10,203 are fit for cultivation, and 15,505 acres 
comprise the unculturable waste, and the sites of villages and towns. 

f *» 

Boundaries , — The pargana is bounded on the n|>rth by the river Sarju or 
Ghagra, on the south by the river Marha/^ on the east by parganas Tanda and 
Iltifdtgaiij, and on the west by parganas llavcli-Oudh, and Pachhamrdth. 

In the nawdbi there were 294 villages 14 chaks 1 jote in the pargaua, of 
which 282 villages 5 chaks and 1 jote were parent villages, and the remainder 
were ddkhilis.^^ 

At annexation 301 villages were included in the pargana under summary 
settlement. These 301 villages are now demarcated as 135 villages only, the remain- 
der being recorded as dakhili villages. In the recent re-arrangement the pargaua 
received 49 mozds from ])argana Pachhamrdth, and six inozas from pargana 
lltifatgauj, so that it now consists of 190 villages separately demarcated. 

In this pargana 2^ nawabi bighas equal the standard biglia of the present 

Origin of name . — When the Bhars held the country they arc said to have managed 
this portion of district from their fort at moza Pali alias Serai Dula, and the par- 
gana was then called PalP^ after the fort. Afterwards when Anup Shah, an 
officer of the Government, came to settle the boundaries of the parganas, he found 
that there were two parganas known by the name of Pdli, of which one was near 
Sultanpilr. He. therefore rc-uamed this pargana Sirwa Pali’"; (Sirwa being 
a village adjacent to Pali) both of which villages possess a certain local interest 
as sacred bathing places. 

About 1170 hasli Rdshun Ali Khan, the Chief of Hasanpur in the Sultanpur 
pargana, acquired a large portion of this pargana, and made his local head quarters 
at where he built a fort, and whence he managed his taliikVi. This fort, 

being the strongest and best fortified place in the neigbourliood, was afterwards used 
by the revenue officer^ of the native Government, and from it the pargana derived 
its present name. 

NatuM features.-! Soil. The three kinds of soil commonly denominated in this 
pargana are Dorns, Matyar, and Baloah. 

.V. Rivers.— To the north of the pargana runs the fine river Sarin ‘alias 
Ghagra, whieh separates the district from Basti aillah. T 9 the south there is a small 
river » Marha», which flows into the « Biswi Nadi” at mozds Karampdr and Cheonti- 
p. la, pargana Akbarpdr. The latter disgorges itself into tho Ghagra at niozd Sliahroz- 
pur, pargana Mhownath Bhanjan in zillah Azimghur. The river “ Marha” at the driest 
seasons IS ofte 9 devoid of water. It takes its rise in the Dariabad district from a ihil 
of “w Akbarpfir,this small stream assumes the nL 

( 2 ) 

, There are some 1216 jhils and tanks of sorts in the pargana. The pargana is 
well covered with timber as a rule, the mangoe, bamboos, and the fig tribe being 
amongst the trees most commonly seen. 

Jangals . — In former times there were five great jangals called Hardi (after the 
Nlllage of that name) Kfizipur-Gurur, Tikri, Khcchalwa, and Chandardip. Of 
Hardi § is still uncleared, Kfizipur has been given in grant to Omanda Singh 
Barwar, and of this more than J has been brought under cultivation, “ Tikri/^ This 
jangal has been made over in grant^^ to Dalthaman Singh Barwdr. The name 
of the grant is Gangapdr, and ^ of it has already been culti>;atpd. Khcchalwa was 
• “ granted^^ to Ragbur Singh aijd Ramdiu Singh Barwars, and one half has been put 
under the plough, Chandardip has been included with Rustam Salihs talukd, and 
some § is under cultivation. • 

Communications , — Under the native Government there were two main roads, 
one from Fyzabad to Tanda, along the banks of the Ghdgra, has an almost unbroken 
avenue of very fine mangoe trees, planted it is said by Sitla Bibi of Tdnda, in 
memory of her departed husband, a banker at Benares. The avenue was made to 
shelter numerous pilgrims passing along the road to Ajudhia, and the planting is said 
to have been done in 1223 Fasli. The second road was from Akbarpur through 
Amsin Kh^ to Fyzabad, and is sparsely planted. 

The present roads kept up by Government are all kacha ” They are, 

I. — From Fyzabad to Mahardjganj, from which place it branches into two, 
the one on the right leading to Akbarpdr and Jounpdr, and that on the left to Tduda 
and Azimgurh. 

There are seven ferries on the Gh^gra in the pargana vis : 

I. — Sirwa. 

II. — Onifir. 


IV. —Begamganj. 

V. — Dalpatpur, 

VI. — Jarhi. 

^VII.— Mama. 

Nos. 1, 3 and 5 are those at which there is most traffic. 

Towns, bazars , — There are no large towns, but there are nine villages in which 
bazars are held viz : 



Saturday and Wednesday. ' 



Friday and Sunday. 



Monday and Friday. 



Saturday and Wednesday. 



Tuesday and Saturday, 



Saturday and Wednesday. 



f Small bazars with no fixed days for open 
i market. 






the nat^inrule to be levied at these markets, the Ze- 

4 aUiijW, the Keii^Mgos U annas, tmdtheCha]dadul0iui9w^u 


( 3 ) 

of the Glitigra, and about 2 koscaat of R on the banks 

of sacred character of this place is as foUows”^''”^ ** I»ilasiganj. The local history 

(thtrici !fuf Zkh'tY' 

mela of Seringi is held) came to Aiddhia B ^ Ganges, and where too a 

. requested the intercession of the fakir whr'^^ff d consequence 

result was the birth of frn,r !, n r T " The 

Lachhman, the thW Bterat 11'?“’ 1^7 *!*' 

« said to have extended fro’m itsT'-escnrsr“to lolrs'^^' ^ 

««PIM .Uh, Md h..c .he ™ 

bp the Ba,.d, .hi. J„ Zitsh r. blLr.! ;T “T"’ ™ ■*” 

of their being excluded from Aindb; n *i, ^ ^ ^ consequence 

This DilSai Singh wm the founded of D'P^- “ ^7'\ Thdkdrs. 

be... hn..n i^h. “• ”? 

.«= «.rMl by'rmh" nST.X?.'S; ““ “ 

At Moza Kasba^^ there is a shrine of K^llra f> u l 

l^diir rB ri 

dh..;: B*»- 

Chief Families. 

““•‘--Tbc B.,.Sr Md lb. IWk.S, Chha.™ 

.1. Th. fomer .1 on. tin. „„ ,„, 

.. U,. nHshtarhood, ..d omed 159 All .h»,. h.« .i.hin Ih. l„l 30 
^.d mto the hand. .( th. .te.rpli,. ohief, of M.hdooa, ..d th. pr...ot B.rri, 
ctoli Mlhsm.. ..a Midi, Sh.l (th. latte, of ,h,„. i, .-h , A 

are comparatively speaking poverty Stricken gentlemen. “ 

One history of the BarwArs is as foUows. 

Bais clan, and came from Dfiudia Khera in 
the Baiswdra district some 300 years ago. The two founders of the family, and sons 
of Chatar Sen alias Chiiri Kdl, were ^ • 

Singh (hence the name Barw&r Rfjptits), 

11686 two brothe*^ for loffie 
^nt Delhi, jtte eWerirf 

kj^^eity, who annowo^d h\me^ as Kipna V^Q(Ak^iTxi^^^ 
future greatness, and at the same time pointed but the spot wlielre bk^^^ 

buried in the earth. 

Soon afterwards, on their release, they sought for and found the effigy, and carried 
it off to mozd Chitdwan in the Pachhamrath pargana^ where they set it up as the 
object of their domestic adoration, and where kis still worshipped by both branches. 
Hereabouts the Barwdrs rapidly became very powerful, and in 1227 Fuali they were 
found in possession of 123 villages 8^ biswas GJ chaks, giving a governmeut revenue 
of Us. 28,301, whilst the other branch, the Chdlms, held -BG villages 5^ biswas, 
paying a revenue of Rs. 5,90p. This vast estate, acquired* chiefly vi et amu and 
partly by purchase, afterwards within the sliort space of ten years i. e. between 1230 
Fasli and 1239 Fasli, with the sole exa:q)tion of about '2 villages, passed away from 
the Barwtirs, and became mcorporate with talukas Pirpur, Dera, Kiirwar, and ]\Ich- 
dona. The Barwurs as a rule are now very badly off, thongli the chiefs Dalthamaii 
Singh and Nddir Shah have retained one or two villages iu the Busti district. 
Another account of the Barwars, and given by Dalthamaii Singh liiuisclf, is as follows. 

The family is an off-shoot of the great Baisclan, and some hundreds of years ago 
carnal from mozu Mungi-patan, alias Pathanpur south west of Jaipur, where their 
Raja, Sal Bahau, had a fort. 

They settled at moza Chitawau Karia, six miles soutli of Ih'gamganj. The 
Bhars held the country in those days, and had a stronghold at Tikri.^^ This the 
Barwars besieged, took, and razed to the ground, and upon tlic ruins tliercof tlicy 
founded a village, and called it Diroa/^ By degrees the Barwars acquiicd a con- 
siderable estate, which they called taluka “ Tandauli,*^ and wliicli the king of Dellii 
granted to them rent free on account of military services rendered by the family. 

The story of this military service is somewhat similar to tlie old legend of the 
battle of the Horatii and Curiatii, wlicn the armies of Rome and Alba met. It is as 

The king of Kanonj had a beautiful queen named Padiiniani,^^ tlie fame of 
whose cliarms reached the cars of the Erajicror of Delhi, and inflamed liis desires. Ten 
of the Barwars, who were amongst the bravest and most heroic of the monarches sol- 
diers, volunteered to go and carry off tlie fair lady. Furnished witli a boat, pro- 
visions, arms, and money, they arrived at Kanonj, surprised the queen as she was 
bathing, and conveyed her to their boat. Great was the consternalion, and a large 
army set olf in pursuit. By keeping the middle of the stream the Barwars managed 
to escape attack, but so soon as they had to leave the river, and journey by land, the 
whole army was upon tliem. The Barwurs were said to have been almost jnvulneia- 
ble heroes, and of surpassing strength. As the army came up, one of the brothers turned, 
and single handed engaged, and cheeked the whole host, whilst the other nine sped 
Oil w^th their pri?c. The contest ended after a time with the death of the heroic 
Barwar. * The army again hurried after the fugitives, when another hero (Sawant) 
turned round, and devoted himself , after the manner of the first one, slaughtering 
numbers of the enemy before he himself fell. In this way eight out of the ten 
sSwants^^ fought and died, and, by their so doing, enabled the two surviving heroes 
to enter Delhi with their lovely prize. The king, astounded at this display of valour, 
loaded the two survivors with honours, and ordered them to select a rent free jdgir 

ilielr Mto, iqri to to totototo d.m«>aed, ,« cc^ted „d IX iato'ISLrt^ 
pargm^ called •'Ammg.ltoi.Ntoir.” mad. mto a d.tmot 

About laejtoto ^ ofDaltbamaii Siogb iocmaaoi 11. a, 

amtoW-Naipd, f„„ ,|„j, propriWon DdlhL7stji 

Ll f NMlr SMh of tie that omed Mika T.^ 

ofth.’!'ht»“'i‘" a”'"' <*“•“» if .ia&oticlde. Twodaoshtem 

of Ekona lo to/oond TT the one the Janwir ei-Eija 

to th X h t n "" «f " IWm.a8.,.Dhlm. 

PaWt, Moil., K.„„k „i p.i, . ^ 

•iiro^ThiaUitm^go ‘’8*** between the Barwte under Futteh 9insh 

UP, A Bit. (aneestor of Nadir Shah) and Mddho Singh Talakdirof D^fa 

1 - , rt. . • dispute was about the possession of Taluka Hankirinrir 

wine . Dera edaimed by purchase from tl.e Barwars. Some 200 persons were killed but’ 
Ifidho Singh gained the day, and has held the Taluka ever since. 

There IS found a goodly sprinkling of Barwars in moziis Tandoli, Kanakpdr 

Saloiie, Dewaphr, Kumbhya, Badoli, Ba. 
J'dli, Mahartijpur and Chachakpur. 

Note on the JIauwars by the OpricuTiNa 

The Chdhu branch, of the family is 
most numerous in mozas Dalpatpdr, Jurhi, 
Baraiparah, Alapiir and Maya. 

The two branches marry into the 
same families, but not with each other. 

X / — The Ralkwdr Thdkurs, The 
next most powerful Rajput family is that 
of the RaikwArs. 

The tradition is that about 300 years 
ago Gajpat Rai and Ghina Rai came from 
Ramuagar-Dhimari, in the Barabanki distriet, to mozfi Sarada in this pargana, 
to arrange a marriage with the Bais Thakurs, who have since disappeared. The 
mission vfas successful, and tlie lady Bais received as her dower raozd Bilwjiri in this 
pargana. Here the Raikwfirs settled. After some years Gajpat Rai took service 
with Dari Shiih, a Malikzada and zemindar of mozfi Sirwa. ThitoMalikz/ida, being 
childless, on his deathbed adopted Gajpat, who performed his. funeral obsequies and 
succeeded to his zemindAri. .In 1193 Fasli the Raikwars added ten villages to their 
estate, and until 1229 Fasli they remained kabhliatdArs of 14 villages. In 1230 
Fasli Mir GhtilAm Husen Chakladar had these 14 villages included in the Barwdrs’ 
TaldkA, but the RaikwArs still retain under-proprietary rights in them. 

Wo, Imvo ticre (wo stories of (ho origin of the 
liaruars, belli of 4^1)ieh allege u Jlais origin. The 
one tliiit they aro an oir.hout from Baiswarra, the 
oMier Mmt like the Bais of lhat ilk, they also canio 
from Muiigi Patau. They date their advent 300 
}ear.s baek, during wliieli time they have pa-ssed 
through 20 generatioiiH, 

Ihoi’o i.s no doubt that the Baiswarra family 
would deny the connexion, and it is to be ohsoined 
liiat llic luLler are nut worshipjx'i’s of Xana Dcota. 
It is far more probable that like numerous colonics 
Mho arc known as Bais m this distiiet, they arc of 
cqunoeal indigenous descent, and both the Bar^^ara 
and their breilirim (lie Chahus arc luiknown, ex- 
cejit in the centre.s where wc liere find tliem loca- 

Tho heroic tradition Mliicli Baltliaman Singh 
relates, lias I liave not the smallest doubt, boon 
appropriated from some other clan. 

P. 0. 

The descendants of Ghina Rai in like manner became powerfob »nd in 1219 
FasU t^y srete in possession of 84 villages 18i biswas, C8lle(^ Ti^llikA Beort Between. 

' ■ ; ■ I; r-jp 

^ ■ The Gajpat Bai branch aw well-to-do, and the Ohina family ^re feiriy ofiS 
at the present time. The Qajpat Rai branch are found in mbi^s Sirwa aad^ 

The Ghina Rai branch are found living in mosds Reori> Onhirj Bithdra and 

There were in former times several Talukds of 8 or 10 villages each belonging 
to Chandels, Brahmins, Bais and Kayeth families. All have long since been broken 
up, and their history offers nothing of interest. ^ 

III. The Surajbanfi Thdkuh . — The S uf ajbans Thfik urs ha's formerly a considerable 
Taldkd of 40 villages in this pargana.' The Talukd was called Narma Powdri, 
They lost 21 villages between 1185 FasK and 1254 Fasli, and the remaining villages 
all passed away from them in 1255 Fasli. Full details of this clan will be found 
under pargana Havcli Oudh. 

fMozd Tma . — There was a severe fight in 1259 Fasli over the possession of 
this village, between Bdbn Jaidat Singh Talukdar of Bhiti, and Raja Rustam Sah 
Taldkddr of Dera. The fight took place at moza Tejapur, and some 150 per- 
sons are said to have been killed, Bdbu Jaidat Singh gained the day. 

IV. The Kaeihs . — There is a curious legend of the Kanungos of this pargana. It 


Under the head of Qour Kaellis in Elliot’s Su|> 
plemental Glossary there is curious confinuation of 
this legend. It is there set forth that Nasiruddin 
the nephew of Bulbun introduced several Gour 
Kocths from Bengal into the western Distriets, 
about 600 years ago, when ho appointed them Ca* 
nungos of Nizainnhad, Bhadoi, Kolo, Ghosi and 
Chiryakote, in Subah Allahabad. 

In this notice Sir Uenry confines his remarks to 
his own territory the N. W. P. But o\ir local tradi- 
tiou carries the legend further. 

P, C. 

is that 400 years ago the Rfija of Gour, by 
name Narpat Das, a Gour Kayeth, was 
treacherously brought by the Brahmins in 
to the power of Bakhtawar Khilji, a General 
of Shflhabudin Ghori, King of Delhi, by 
whom he was incarcerated near Delhi. Nar- 
pat Das had 12 sous, who were given 12 
Parganas as Kanungos, and 12 Mehals 
in Zemindari. In Azimgarh there are 3 
ODC — Mirzapiir one — Darbanga one — Gwalior 

Parganas — Ghazipfir one — Benares 
one — and in Oudh four, of which one is Amsin. 

General remarks . — The population is generally poverty ridden, and when one 
comes to consider that the far greater portion of the pargana belongs to Talukddrs, 
this is not a happy result of the Talukdari tenure. It would rather lead one to believe 
that the Talukdars are a hard rack-renting class. 

The general and indeed almost sole occupation of the population is that of tilling 
the soil. The people in this part of the district use tiled roofs in preferencelo thatch. 
It is quite the exception to sec a thatched dwelling. , 

• • Cultivation is very good throughout the pargana. All crops are cultivated 
except hdjra^^ and “ mung^' which are rarely seen. The area in cultivation in 
‘‘ kharif ” and rubbi'^ is about equal, sugar cane is very largely cultivated, cotton 
and indigo but rarely, and the poppy (opium) is not a favorite crop. 

Wheeled-traffic is almost unknown. One very rarely sees a 2 
bullock cart and never a 4 bullock one. The few carts there are belong to the Taldk- 
ddra and rich Zemindars. The stores in demand at the local bazars, and the exports 
and imports by river Ghagra are carried on men^s heads, or on ponies. 

flMu.Am.Lror the iMt 100 «MH tiwmhw lH>e» ^|iq.4annt>n, to >iy 

'■ ■ C'S' -I .... 

y ^v- ) 

tith the deej^ stream the foot of the hank» and eonseqii6n% is not so m)]eoi |(^ 

change by fluvial actioias the opposite low laR^ of the- Bust! district. ; ^ ' 

There are 1379 wells in the pargana, from which and jhils (which 
as before stated are numerous) the lands are artificially watered. In the north of the 
pargana, along the G4hgra, the wells have to be sunk a great depth before water is 
reached, viz. 34 feet. In the south however, water is found at 20 feet ; nearly all the 
wells are paka, as kacha ones do not stand. 

Education , — There are several Village Schools established in the pargana viz 
at Dildsiganj, GoshalLjgitnj, Tanddli, Jdrai, and other places. 

».# ** i 

There wore no forts in the pargana, but there were several fortified 
houses (kdts), notably one at TandoH belonging to M^h^rdja Sir Man Singh, one 
at Tejapur belonging to Raja Rustam Sdh, at Samda kot of Jeh^ngir Bakhsh, at 
Ouiar the kot of Malik Tafazul Hosein, at Lachigur the kot of Bdbu Jaidat 
Singh, and at Dh^rmpfir the kot of Thakurain Raghuu^th koer. 

Exports and imports , — “ Urd*^ and “ m^h*^ are the chief exports by river 
Ghagra, and ch^waR* “ dhdn^^ and " mukai^^ are imported by the same route. 

The horned cattle to the north of the pargana, where the grazing on the 
river manjhfis is abundant, arc above the average, but as a general rule the cattle arc 
a very inferior and starvation-dwarfed set of animals. 


Assistant Settlement Officer.